Asian Journal of atmospheric environment
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Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment - Vol. 13 , No. 3

[ Technical Information ]
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment - Vol. 13, No. 3, pp.212-231
Abbreviation: Asian J. Atmos. Environ
ISSN: 1976-6912 (Print) 2287-1160 (Online)
Print publication date 30 Sep 2019
Received 25 Apr 2019 Revised 31 May 2019 Accepted 19 Jun 2019
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5572/ajae.2019.13.3.212

Analysis of the National Air Pollutant Emission Inventory (CAPSS 2015) and the Major Cause of Change in Republic of Korea
So-young Yeo ; Hyang-kyeong Lee* ; Seong-woo Choi ; Sung-hee Seol ; Hyung-ah Jin ; Chul Yoo ; Jaeh-yun Lim ; Jeong-soo Kim
Earth Environmental Research Division, Climate and Air Quality Research Department, National Institute of Environmental Research

Correspondence to : * Tel: +82-32-560-7317 E-mail: leehk0803@korea.kr


Copyright © 2019 by Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Funding Information ▼

Abstract

In 2015, air pollutant emissions in the Republic of Korea were 792,776 metric tons of CO, 1,157,728 metric tons of NOx, 352,292 metric tons of SOx, 604,243 metric tons of TSP, 233,177 metric tons of PM10, 98,806 tons of PM2.5, 15,934 metric tons of BC, 1,010,771 metric tons of VOCs, and 297,167 metric tons of NH3. Among major emission source categories, the main emission sources and the contributions to emissions, by pollutant, were as follows: road transport (31.0%), biomass burning (29.3%), and non-road transport (17.1%) for CO; road transport (31.9%), non-road transport (26.3%), and manufacturing industry (14.6%) for NOx; industrial processes (29.9%), energy production (25.9%), and manufacturing industry (24.2%) for SOx; fugitive dust (67.6%) manufacturing industry (20.1%) for TSP; fugitive dust (47.0%) and manufacturing industry (30.4%) for PM10; manufacturing industry (36.8%), fugitive dust (17.5%), and non-road transport (14.3%) for PM2.5; road transport (42.0%) and non-road transport (39.6%) for BC; solvent use (54.9%) and industrial processes (18.1%) for VOCs; and agriculture (77.8%) and industrial processes (13.3%) for NH3. The data we calculate can be used as official national emissions data for the establishment, implementation, and assessment of air quality-related policy, such as measures to deal with particulate matter, as well as for related modeling and other research.


Keywords: CAPSS, Atmospheric pollutants, Particulate matter, Ultrafine particulate matter, National air pollutant emissions

1. INTRODUCTION

Estimating air pollutant emissions data is vital for informing policy and research to improve the atmospheric environment. However, it is a delicate issue due to the various politico-economic interests involved. Nevertheless, this data is needed to establish policies for atmosphere management and to counter climate change and is an important tool for policy setting and outcome assessment (National Institute of Environmental Research, 2018).

Looking at the state of emissions in two developed countries, in the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) compiles and publishes the National Emission Inventory (NEI), focusing on general air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Alternatively, Japan does not have an official unified national inventory, and emissions from each emission source are estimated by the institution with convenient access and control of data. For example, the emission data in JEI-DB is compiled by the Japan Auto-Oil Program (JATOP), which is an inventory program combining emission sources estimated and managed by each institution, emission sources calculated directly from statistical data using equations, and emission sources estimated using approximate emission models (National Institute of Environmental Research, 2018).

In the Republic of Korea, the National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) estimates the annual emissions of the air pollutants, CO, NOx, SOx, TSP, PM10, PM2.5, BC, VOCs, and NH3, via the Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS). To this end, around 300 data points are collected from 150 domestic institutions (as of 2015 emissions). Emissions are calculated by applying the emissions factors and control efficiency for each emission source/fuel to the appropriate activity level for each emission source (bottom-up only).

The estimated emissions amounts play the role of the official air pollutants emissions data for the Republic of Korea, which are then used as basis to establish and analyze the expected effects of policies for air improvement, such as the combined air improvement plan, the basic plan for atmospheric environment management in the capital, special measures against particulate matter, and combined measures to control particular matter. It is also used as input data for air quality prediction models. Thus, alongside air pollution monitoring network data, emissions data is the most important basic data.

In this report, we describe the results of 2015 emissions estimates and analyze the major factors contributing to changes from 2014.


2. METHODS OF ESTIMATING NATIONAL AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS
2. 1 Emission Source Classification and Emission Factors

To estimate national air pollutant emissions data, we established an emission source classification system by combining the CORINAIR classification system from Europe with the domestic industrial classification system for air pollutant emission sources. Thus, we classified emission sources into energy production, non-industry, manufacturing industry, industrial processes, energy transport and storage, solvent use, road transport, non-road transport, waste, agriculture, other, fugitive dust, and biomass burning (National Institute of Environmental Research, 2013).

Emission factors are displayed as emissions per unit activity. We primarily used emission factors developed from domestic research, including scientific research institutes, and we also referred to emission factors from the EU CORINAIR and the US EPA as necessary (National Institute of Environmental Research, 2015).

2. 2 Method for Emissions Estimation

Emissions were estimated using the appropriate activity levels and emission factors for each emission source. Among emission sources, point pollution sources were estimated using a bottom-up method, based on data collected from the Stack Emission Management System (SEMS) and CleanSYS (remote stack monitoring system), while non-point pollution sources were estimated using a top-down method, using activity levels for each emission source based on statistical data from related institutions, such as fuel consumption and vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT). From these emissions, regional emissions were estimated by a spatial allocation based on factors such as SEMS coordinates and addresses for industrial sites or traffic volume for roads (National Institute of Environmental Research, 2013).

2. 3 Record of Major Improvements in Emissions

The methodology for estimating air pollutant emissions was reviewed by an emission factors committee based on relevant domestic and overseas research results. NH3 was added to the list of substances for emissions estimation in 2001. In 2005, the state of environmentally-friendly road use was applied to emissions in the capital. In 2007, CleanSYS emissions data were applied, using real-time stack emissions data in CAPSS, and additional emissions were estimated in relevant sectors after the collection of newly imported anthracite coal data. Fugitive dust, a new emission source, was also estimated. In 2011, biomass burning was added as an emission source, and PM2.5 was added to the list of substances for which emissions are estimated. (In 2015, Biomass burning and fugitive dust emissions were released to the public. But in this paper, the previous emission data of biomass burning and fugitive dust were presented for the consistent analysis.) In 2014, the NOx emission factors were developed and implemented to reflect the actual road driving conditions of diesel vehicles (National Institute of Environmental Research, 2018). Furthermore, past emissions estimates were updated using the latest methodology in the event of major changes in emissions due to the addition of new substances or the discovery of new emission sources, in order to improve the consistency of emission trends analysis.


3. 2015 EMISSIONS ESTIMATES
3. 1 Air Pollutant Emissions
3. 1. 1 Emissions per Substance and Emission Source

In 2015, the nationwide emissions of air pollutants included 792,776 metric tons of CO, 1,157,728 metric tons of NOx, 352,292 metric tons of SOx, 604,243 metric tons of TSP, 233,177 metric tons of PM10, 98,806 metric tons of PM2.5, 15,934 metric tons of BC, 1,010,771 metric tons of VOCs, and 297,167 metric tons of NH3 (Table 1).

Table 1. 
2015 emissions and the relative contribution of air pollutants per major emission source category. (units: metric tons/year)
Source category CO NOx SOx TSP PM10 PM2.5 BC* VOCs NH3
Total 792,776
(100%)
1,157,728
(100%)
352,292
(100%)
604,243
(100%)
233,177
(100%)
98,806
(100%)
15,934
(100%)
1,010,771
(100%)
297,167
(100%)
Energy production 55,138
(7.0%)
150,818
(13.0%)
91,243
(25.9%)
4,692
(0.8%)
4,394
(1.9%)
3,607
(3.7%)
307
(1.9%)
7,464
(0.7%)
1,379
(0.5%)
Non industry 72,299
(9.1%)
82,948
(7.2%)
28,736
(8.2%)
1,841
(0.3%)
1,582
(0.7%)
1,025
(1.0%)
155
(1.0%)
2,622
(0.3%)
1,351
(0.5%)
Manufacturing industry 16,854
(2.1%)
169,139
(14.6%)
85,098
(24.2%)
121,668
(20.1%)
70,893
(30.4%)
36,317
(36.8%)
741
(4.6%)
3,101
(0.3%)
627
(0.2%)
Industrial processes 26,069
(3.3%)
59,830
(5.2%)
105,385
(29.9%)
11,876
(2.0%)
6,658
(2.9%)
5,132
(5.2%)
16
(0.1%)
182,899
(18.1%)
39,432
(13.3%)
Energy transport and storage 29,137
(2.9%)
Solvent use 555,359
(54.9%)
Road transport 245,516
(31.0%)
369,585
(31.9%)
209
(0.1%)
9,583
(1.6%)
9,583
(4.1%)
8,817
(8.9%)
5,456
(34.2%)
46,145
(4.6%)
10,078
(3.4%)
Non-road transport 135,700
(17.1%)
304,376
(26.3%)
39,424
(11.2%)
15,320
(2.5%)
15,317
(6.6%)
14,106
(14.3%)
6,879
(43.2%)
40,311
(4.0%)
117
(0.04%)
Waste 1,548
(0.2%)
11,977
(1.0%)
2,119
(0.6%)
340
(0.1%)
246
(0.1%)
209
(0.2%)
3
(0.02%)
57,074
(5.6%)
22
(0.01%)
Agriculture 231,263
(77.8%)
Other 7,197
(0.9%)
172
(0.01%)
498
(0.1%)
317
(0.1%)
285
(0.3%)
15
(0.1%)
648
(0.1%)
12,882
(4.3%)
Fugitive dust 408,242
(67.6%)
109,633
(47.0%)
17,248
(17.5%)
108
(0.8%)
Biomass burning 232,455
(29.3%)
8,883
(0.8%)
79
(0.02%)
30,183
(5.0%)
14,552
(6.2%)
12,060
(12.2%)
2,255
(14.2%)
86,012
(8.5%)
15
(0.01%)
*BC: BC(Black Carbon) as EC(Elemental Carbon)

The emission sources’ proportion of total emissions per pollutant were as follows: road transport (31.0%), biomass burning (29.3%), and non-road transport (17.1%) for CO; road transport (31.9%), non-road transport (26.3%), and manufacturing industry (14.6%) for NOx; industrial processes (29.9%), energy production (25.9%), and manufacturing industry (24.2%) for SOx; fugitive dust (67.6%) and manufacturing industry (20.1%) for TSP; fugitive dust (47.0%) and manufacturing industry (30.4%) for PM10; manufacturing industry (36.8%), fugitive dust (17.5%), and non-road transport (14.3%) for PM2.5; road transport (42.0%) and non-road transport (39.6%) for BC; solvent use (54.9%) and industrial processes (18.1%) for VOCs; and agriculture (77.8%) and industrial processes (13.3%) for NH3 (Fig. 1).


Fig. 1. 
2015 emission contributions of different emission source categories, per pollutant.

3. 1. 2 Emission Trends and Cause of Changes

Although air pollutant emissions have been estimated since 1999, comparisons with past data are difficult due to annual additions of new emission sources or improvements in estimation methods. Since 2007, anthracite coal imports were added to the emissions estimate, CleanSYS emissions data were used, and the VOCs’ emission factors were changed, resulting in large shifts in emissions for the related substances. In 2011, improvements to emission estimates continued to be pursued, with the addition of PM2.5 emissions and new emission sources such as industrial processes, improvement of the car emission factors for transport, and use of control efficiency due to oil mist collection facilities in the energy transport and storage sector. In 2012, the estimation methodology was improved in the non-road transport (construction machinery) sector, and the food and drinks manufacturing (whiskey and other spirits) and VOCs emission factors were improved. In 2014, fishing vessels and leisure boats were added to the ships sector, and the methodology for the roads sector was also improved, such as using NOx emissions factors that reflects the actual road driving conditions. In this report, we present emissions over the last 5 years, from 2011 to 2015, and analyze and describe the main causes of change from 2014 to 2015. The major trends in air pollutant emissions are described below.

CO Emissions

The annual trends in CO emissions are shown in Fig. 2 and Table 2; recently, there has been an overall decrease in emissions. Road transport emissions, which accounted for 31.0% of CO emissions in 2015, decreased by 35,709 metric tons (12.7%) compared to the previous year. This was the result of a 10.5% reduction in vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) by small passenger cars (2014: 13.624 billion km → 2015: 12,195 billion km). In the non-industry category, which also accounts for a high percentage of CO emissions, use of anthracite coal for heating decreased by 9.6% compared to the previous year (2014: 1,628,911 metric tons → 2015: 1,473,094 metric tons), leading to a 5.6% (4,295 metric tons) decrease in emissions. In the energy production category, emissions decreased 4.7% (2,718 metric tons); this was due to a 19.5% decrease in emissions in the public power generation category, the result of a 42.4% decrease in LNG consumption (2014: 12.210943 billion m3 → 2015: 7.038176 billion m3). Conversely, in the non-road transport category, CO emissions increased 17.1% (9,597 metric tons) compared to the previous year due to an increase in the mean operating rate of construction machinery (2014: 40.71% → 2015: 41.55%).


Fig. 2. 
Trends in CO emissions, by emission source, in the last 5 years.

Table 2. 
Trends in CO emissions, by emission source, in the last 5 years. (units: metric tons/year)
Source category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Change
Energy production 56,202 59,190 63,457 57,856 55,138 -4.7%
Non industry 79,804 79,152 87,532 76,594 72,299 -5.6%
Manufacturing industry 19,179 19,141 20,125 18,716 16,854 -9.9%
Industrial processes 21,406 20,648 24,912 25,855 26,069 0.8%
Road transport 463,543 442,672 409,218 281,225 245,516 -12.7%
Non-road transport 68,290 72,950 82,615 126,103 135,700 7.6%
Waste 1,861 3,300 1,957 1,645 1,548 -5.9%
Other 8,060 6,533 6,865 6,459 7,197 11.4%
Biomass burning 262,282 260,903 255,206 231,917 232,455 0.2%
Total 980,626 964,490 951,888 826,370 792,776 -4.1%

NOx Emissions

The annual trends in NOx emissions are shown in Fig. 3 and Table 3; in the last 5 years, there has been an overall increase in emissions. In 2015, NOx emissions increased 13,220 metric tons compared to the previous year. This was due to increased emissions in the non-road transport, road transport, and industrial processes categories. Non-road transport, which accounted for 26.3% of total NOx emissions, is showing a continually increasing trend. In 2014, emissions estimation methodology was constructed for new emission sources in the ships category (fishing vessels and leisure boats); the extra emissions resulted in an increase from 89,887 metric tons in 2013 to 144,030 metric tons. In 2015, an increase in the mean operating rate of construction machinery (2014: 40.71% → 2015: 41.55%) led to a 4.9% increase (13,205 metric tons) in emissions from that source. The road transport category has shown an increasing trend since 2014, and increased by 2.3% in 2015 compared to the previous year, reaching 369,585 metric tons. The VKT of large and small freight cars increased 10.4% (2014: 8.874 billion km → 2015: 9.800 billion km) and 2.9% (2014: 35.212 billion km → 2015: 36.241 billion km), respectively, compared to the previous year, resulting in an increase in emissions. The VKT of small RVs also increased 6.1% (2014: 38.931 billion km → 2015: 41.317 billion km), contributing to the increase in emissions.


Fig. 3. 
Trends in NOx emissions, by emission source, in the last 5 years.

Table 3. 
Trends in NOx emissions, by emission source, in the last 5 years. (units: metric tons/year)
Source category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Change
Energy production 166,709 169,346 177,219 162,818 150,818 -7.4%
Non industry 90,876 87,935 88,769 81,143 82,948 2.2%
Manufacturing industry 181,219 172,761 178,034 173,660 169,139 -2.6%
Industrial processes 53,077 59,002 55,151 53,311 59,830 12.2%
Road transport 322,307 345,666 335,721 361,230 369,585 2.3%
Non-road transport 217,098 225,561 246,027 291,171 304,376 4.5%
Waste 8,732 14,782 9,529 12,257 11,977 -2.3%
Other 197 154 165 153 172 12.6%
Biomass burning 9,221 9,177 9,110 8,765 8,883 1.3%
Total 1,049,435 1,084,383 1,099,723 1,144,508 1,157,728 1.2%

On the other hand, energy production, which accounts for 13.0% of total NOx emissions, decreased 7.4% (12,000 metric tons) relative to the previous year. This appears to be due to a 42.4% decrease in LNG usage at public power generation facilities (2014: 12.210943 billion m3 → 2015: 7.037176 billion m3) and a 15.4% decrease in LNG usage at district heat production plants (2014: 2.367650 billion m3 → 2015: 2.003366 billion m3). Manufacturing industry, which accounts for 14.6% of emissions, also decreased by 2.6% (4,521 metric tons) compared to the previous year; this was due to decreases in anthracite coal (2014: 1.961 million metric tons → 2015: 1.281 million metric tons) and LNG usage (2014: 4.694507 billion m3 → 2015: 3.196508 billion m3), which are included in the ‘Other’ subcategory for this emission source.

SOx Emissions

As shown in Fig. 4 and Table 5, SOx emissions, which are heavily affected by the sulfur content of fuel, showed an overall decreasing trend (2011: 434,113 metric tons → 2015: 352,292 metric tons). However, in 2015, emissions increased by 9,131 metric tons compared to the previous year. Due to the continual expansion of low sulfur fuel supply policies and clean fuel use policies, fuel’s sulfur content has been decreasing, including diesel, kerosene, and gasoline (Table 4). This has resulted in decreasing SOx emissions in the fuel combustion categories, such as energy production and non-industry, as well as the transport categories.


Fig. 4. 
Trends in SOx emissions, by emission source, in the last 5 years.

Table 4. 
Annual sulfur content of major fuel types. (units: wt%)
Fuel 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015
Bunker-C fuel oil (4.0%) 3.228 3.11944 3.10624 2.98658 3.01056
Diesel (0.001%) 0.001 0.00053 0.00053 0.00048 0.00054
Kerosine 0.05 0.05 0.00041 0.00046 0.0006
Regular unleaded gasoline 0.001 0.00049 0.00045 0.00047 0.00047
*Source: Korea Petroleum Quality & Distribution Authority, sulfur content for each fuel type

Table 5. 
Trends in SOx emissions, by emission source, in the last 5 years. (units: metric tons/year)
Source category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Change
Energy production 84,464 91,053 97,565 94,562 91,243 -3.5%
Non industry 53,957 40,245 31,101 24,668 28,736 16.5%
Manufacturing industry 109,878 96,617 95,836 82,982 85,098 2.5%
Industrial processes 109,342 117,191 108,333 98,927 105,385 6.5%
Road transport 366 211 189 183 209 13.7%
Non-road transport 67,557 65,188 65,119 39,991 39,424 -1.4%
Waste 8,395 7,140 6,517 1,846 2,119 14.8%
Biomass burning 154 153 148 80 79 -1.5%
Total 434,113 417,798 404,808 343,241 352,292 2.6%

In 2015, emissions from industrial processes, which accounted for 29.9% of total SOx emissions, increased 6.5% (6,458 metric tons) compared to the previous year. This was due to an emissions increase of 20.1% (5,938 metric tons) in the iron and steel industry, which was the result of increased CleanSYS emissions from some sites (CleanSYS SOx emissions from the pertinent sites, 2014: 8,403 metric tons → 2015: 10,473 metric tons). Non-industry emissions increased 16.5% (4,068 metric tons) compared to the previous year; this was because of a 21.6% increase (2014: 2.012 million kL → 2015: 2.448 million kL) in Bunker-C fuel oil (4.0%) usage at commercial and public institutions. Manufacturing industry accounts for 24.2% of total SOx emissions and increased by 2.5% (2,116 metric tons) compared to the previous year. This was due to an 8.6% increase (2014: 6.500 million metric tons → 2015: 7.058 million metric tons) in the use of anthracite coal for industrial purposes, such as iron and steel, cement, and other uses. On the other hand, emissions in the Energy production category, which account for 25.9% of total emissions, decreased 3.5% (3,319 metric tons) compared to the previous year. This was due to a 1.6% increase (2014: 79.608 million metric tons → 2015: 80.860 million metric tons) in the use of bituminous coal at public power generation plants.

Particulate Matter (TSP, PM10, PM2.5, BC) Emissions

Among particular matter, PM2.5 emissions were first estimated and reported in 2011, and black carbon (BC) emissions were first estimated in 2014. In terms of PM2.5, manufacturing industry, which accounts for 36.8% of total PM2.5 emissions, increased 19.8% (5,996 metric tons) compared to the previous year; this was due to an 8.6% increase (2014: 6.500 million metric tons → 2015: 7.058 million metric tons) in the use of anthracite coal for industrial purposes, such as iron and steel, cement, and other uses. Non-road transport, which accounts for 14.3% of total PM2.5 emissions, increased by 3.2% (435 metric tons) compared to 2014. This was due to a 3.6% increase in the number of registered construction machines (Table 6), and an increase in construction machinery’s mean operating rate (2014: 40.71% → 2015: 41.55%).

Table 6. 
The number of registered construction machines. (units: number of machines)
Type of construction machines 2014 2015 Change
Bulldozer 3,972 3,880 -2.3%
Loader 20,624 21,979 6.6%
Forklift 156,612 164,983 5.3%
Excavator 133,388 136,244 2.1%
Crane 9,410 9,758 3.7%
Dump truck 54,395 55,023 1.2%
Concrete mixer truck 23,179 23,785 2.6%
Concrete pump 5,816 6,370 9.5%
Roller 6,397 6,417 0.3%
Air compressor 4,333 4,546 4.9%
Drilling rig 4,820 5,013 4.0%
Other 7,148 7,724 8.1%
Total 430,094 445,722 3.6%
*Source: Statistics on the state of construction machines, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, and Transport

On the other hand, road transport emissions, which accounted for 8.9% of total emissions, decreased 4.4% (401 metric tons) compared to the previous year, due to a decrease of 23.5% (2014: 5.248 million km → 2015: 4.016 million km in the VKT of small passenger cars. In addition, emissions from energy production decreased by 2.0% (72 metric tons), which was due to a decrease in the use of combined-cycle power (2014: 111,711 Gwh → 2015: 100,598 Gwh).


Fig. 5. 
Trends in TSP emissions, by emission source, in the last 5 years.

Table 7. 
Trends in TSP emissions, by emission source, in the last 5 years. (units: metric tons/year)
Source category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Change
Energy production 5,024 4,893 4,961 4,733 4,692 -0.9%
Non industry 2,562 2,398 2,289 1,908 1,841 -3.5%
Manufacturing industry 153,097 133,310 138,826 102,738 121,668 18.4%
Industrial processes 13,249 13,954 11,819 12,167 11,876 -2.4%
Road transport 13,030 12,969 12,103 10,019 9,583 -4.4%
Non-road transport 13,904 14,336 15,170 14,865 15,320 3.1%
Waste 334 456 330 335 340 1.4%
Other 609 428 488 428 498 16.5%
Fugitive dust 580,427 540,950 549,207 395,944 408,242 3.1%
Biomass burning 34,271 33,762 32,550 30,323 30,183 -0.5%
Total 816,508 757,456 767,743 573,460 604,243 5.4%


Fig. 6. 
Trends in PM10 emissions, by emission source, in the last 5 years.

Table 8. 
Trends in PM10 emissions, by emission source, in the last 5 years. (units: metric tons/year)
Source category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Change
Energy production 4,546 4,582 4,524 4,508 4,394 -2.5%
Non industry 2,213 2,062 1,955 1,629 1,582 -2.9%
Manufacturing industry 89,463 77,833 81,014 59,975 70,893 18.2%
Industrial processes 7,394 7,600 6,249 6,407 6,658 3.9%
Road transport 13,030 12,969 12,103 10,019 9,583 -4.4%
Non-road transport 13,901 14,332 15,167 14,861 15,317 3.1%
Waste 242 330 243 247 246 0.0%
Other 386 272 310 272 317 16.4%
Fugitive dust 113,267 115,121 108,942 98,671 109,633 11.1%
Biomass burning 17,016 16,702 15,663 14,583 14,552 -0.2%
Total 261,460 251,804 246,168 211,172 233,177 10.4%


Fig. 7. 
Trends in PM2.5 emissions, by emission source, in the last 5 years.

Table 9. 
Trends in PM2.5 emissions, by emission source, in the last 5 years. (units: metric tons/year)
Source category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Change
Energy production 3,534 3,660 3,573 3,679 3,607 -2.0%
Non industry 1,326 1,269 1,226 1,045 1,025 -1.9%
Manufacturing industry 45,721 39,700 41,606 30,322 36,317 19.8%
Industrial processes 5,876 6,032 4,829 4,903 5,132 4.7%
Road transport 11,988 11,932 11,135 9,218 8,817 -4.4%
Non-road transport 12,792 13,186 13,953 13,671 14,106 3.2%
Waste 209 265 202 204 209 2.8%
Other 348 244 279 245 285 16.4%
Fugitive dust 17,390 18,168 17,127 16,101 17,248 7.1%
Biomass burning 13,930 13,659 12,681 12,073 12,060 -0.1%
Total 113,114 108,114 106,610 91,460 98,806 8.0%


Fig. 8. 
Trends in BC emissions, by emission source, in the last 2 years.

Table 10. 
Trends in BC emissions, by emission source, in the last 2 years. (units: metric tons/year)
Source category 2014 2015 Change
Energy production 324 307 -5.2%
Non industry 156 155 -0.9%
Manufacturing industry 648 741 14.2%
Industrial processes 15 16 4.9%
Road transport 5,674 5,456 -3.8%
Non-road transport 6,594 6,879 4.3%
Waste 3 3 2.8%
Other 11 15 27.7%
Fugitive dust 108 108 -0.3%
Biomass burning 2,261 2,255 -0.3%
Total 15,795 15,934 0.9%

VOCs Emissions

The annual VOCs emission trend is shown in Fig. 9 and Table 11; the change in emissions resulted from changes in coating usage, and improvements in emissions lists and the emission factors. In 2015, emissions increased due to increases in the categories of waste and solvent use. Emissions from solvent use, which accounted for the largest portion of total emissions (54.9%), increased by 6,041 metric tons (1.1%) compared to the previous year; this was because of a 1.5% increase (5,089 metric tons) in emissions from painting facilities due to a 5.7% increase (2014: 240,252 kL → 2015: 253,912 kL) in supply of paints for construction and buildings (record of construction coatings supply). In non-road transport as well, there was an emissions increase of 9.3% (3,438 metric tons) compared to the previous year, which was found to be the result of an increase in the mean operating rate of construction machinery (2014: 40.71% → 2015: 41.55%). Emissions from industrial processes showed a 1.4% increase (2,548 metric tons) compared to the previous year. The increase in emissions in this category was due to a 4.5% increase (2014: 144.309 million kL → 2015: 150.862 million kL) in the crude oil input volume in the petroleum product manufacturing sector. The energy transport and storage category also showed an increase of 5.4% (1,492 metric tons) compared to the previous year; this was due to increases of 6.4% (2014: 22.774 million kL → 2015: 24.234 million kL) and 5.1% (2014: 11.464 million kL → 2015: 12.047 million kL), respectively, in the production and sales of gasoline.


Fig. 9. 
Trends in VOCs emissions, by emission source, in the last 5 years.

Table 11. 
Trends in VOCs emissions, by emission source, in the last 5 years. (units: metric tons/year)
Source category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Change
Energy production 7,623 7,992 8,545 7,697 7,464 -3.0%
Non industry 2,948 2,953 2,784 2,558 2,622 2.5%
Manufacturing industry 3,560 3,373 3,537 3,280 3,101 -5.5%
Industrial processes 146,499 166,668 174,156 180,351 182,899 1.4%
Energy transport and storage 25,318 26,985 27,241 27,645 29,137 5.4%
Solvent use 559,662 565,495 562,070 549,318 555,359 1.1%
Road transport 69,059 67,776 65,807 49,468 46,145 -6.7%
Non-road transport 16,758 20,274 22,288 36,873 40,311 9.3%
Waste 40,879 49,257 46,508 48,061 57,074 18.8%
Other 803 549 637 551 648 17.5%
Biomass burning 106,153 104,930 101,487 86,454 86,012 -0.5%
Total 979,262 1,016,252 1,015,059 992,256 1,010,771 1.9%

Moreover, road transport, which accounts for 4.6% of total emissions, has shown a continual decrease in VOCs emissions due to an increase in the number of recent cars being registered and improvements in emissions factors. Emissions from this category also decreased 6.7% (3,323 metric tons) in 2015 compared to the previous year, which was due to a 10.5% decrease (2014: 13.624 billion km → 2015: 12.195 billion km) in the VKT of small passenger cars.

NH3 Emissions

As Fig. 10 and Table 12 show, there was an overall increasing trend in NH3 emissions in 2015 compared to 2011, with a 4,666 metric ton increase in 2015 over the previous year. Agriculture (fertilizer use, livestock excrement, etc.), which is the main source of NH3 emissions, accounts for 77.8% of total NH3 emissions as of 2015, and emissions from this category increased 3,310 metric tons (1.5%) in 2015 compared to the previous year. There was an increase of 3,581 metric tons (1.7%) in emissions from excrement management, which influenced the increase in total emissions from this category. This was the result of a 5.6% increase (2014: 179.390 million animals → 2015: 189.417 million animals) in the number of livestock. In the industrial processes category, there was an increase of 3.7% (1,389 metric tons) in 2015 compared to the previous year; this was the result of a 4.5% increase (2014: 144.309 million kL → 2015: 150.862 million kL) in the crude oil input volume in the petroleum product manufacturing sector.


Fig. 10. 
Trends in NH3 emissions, by emission source, in the last 5 years.

Table 12. 
Trends in NH3 emissions, by emission source, in the last 5 years. (units: metric tons/year)
Source category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Change
Energy production 1,465 1,586 1,745 1,425 1,379 -3.2%
Non industry 1,528 1,477 1,392 1,280 1,351 5.6%
Manufacturing industry 863 803 800 717 627 -12.5%
Industrial processes 33,530 38,006 35,051 38,043 39,432 3.7%
Road transport 9,208 9,641 9,839 10,113 10,078 -0.3%
Non-road transport 662 214 220 116 117 0.8%
Waste 23 24 23 23 22 -3.2%
Agriculture 216,453 238,975 231,117 227,953 231,263 1.5%
Other 12,684 12,737 12,785 12,832 12,882 0.4%
Biomass burning 20 20 20 16 15 -3.4%
Total 276,435 303,483 292,993 292,517 297,167 1.6%

On the other hand, NH3 emissions from the manufacturing industry category showed a 12.5% decrease (90 metric tons) compared to the previous year. This decrease was due to a 31.9% decrease (2014: 4.694507 billion m3 → 2015: 3.196508 billion m3) in LNG usage in the “Other” subcategory of combustion (manufacturing industry) compared to the previous year.


4. CONCLUSION

Using CAPSS to estimate national emissions in 2015, we found that CO emissions were 792,776 metric tons. The major CO emission sources were road transport (31.0%), biomass burning (29.3%), and non-road transport (17.1%). NOx emissions were 1,157,728 metric tons, of which the main sources were road transport (31.9%), non-road transport (26.3%), and the manufacturing industry (14.6%). SOx emissions were 352,292 metric tons, of which the main sources were industrial processes (29.9%), energy production (25.9%), and the manufacturing industry (24.2%). TSP emissions were 604,243 metric tons, of which the main sources were fugitive dust (67.6%) and the manufacturing industry (20.1%). PM10 emissions were 233,177 metric tons, of which the main sources were fugitive dust (47.0%) and the manufacturing industry (30.4%). PM2.5 emissions were 98,806 metric tons, of which the main sources were the manufacturing industry (36.8%), fugitive dust (17.5%), and non-road transport (14.3%). BC emissions were 15,934 metric tons, of which the main sources were road transport (42.0%) and non-road transport (39.6%). VOCs emissions were 1,010,771 metric tons, of which the main sources were solvent use (54.9%) and industrial processes (18.1%). NH3 emissions were 297,167 metric tons, of which the main sources were agriculture (77.8%) and industrial processes (13.3%).

Most substances showed increased emissions in 2015 relative to 2014. The percentage increases were 1.9% for NOx, 2.6% for SOx, 5.4% for TSP, 10.4% for PM10, 8.0.% for PM2.5, 0.9% for BC, 1.9% for VOCs, and 1.6% for NH3. Meanwhile, CO emissions decreased by 4.1%. When calculating emissions in 2015, since no improvements were made to the methodology, such as improving the emissions factors and the application method of activity levels, the increase in substances was mostly due to the increase in activity levels. In particular, the overall increase in emissions was caused by higher activity levels in sources of emissions significantly impacted by the economic situation, including construction, shipping, production processes, and manufacturing sectors. However, as the ratio of new cars to CO increased, emissions decreased continuously.

These estimates can be used in research, air quality forecast modeling, and as data to support the establishment, implementation, and assessment of air quality-related policies. Thus, continued research is required in order to obtain accurate data about air pollutant emission sources, to perform quantitative assessments following the establishment and implementation of related measures, and to correct the uncertainty and increase the reliability of national air pollutant emissions data.


Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute of Environment Research (NIER), funded by the Ministry of Environment (MOE) of the Republic of Korea (NIER-2018-01-01-091).


REFERENCES
1. Korea Energy Economics Institute (2012) 2011 Energy consumption survey
2. Korea Energy Economics Institute (2016) 2016 Yerabook of regional energy statistics
3. Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs Republic of Korea (2016) Agriculture, food and rural affairs statistics yearbook 2016
4. Ministry of Environment (2016) National waste generation and disposal status 2016
5. Ministry of Environment (2017) Environmental statistics yearbook 2016
6. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport (2016) Statistical yearbook of road traffic counts 2015
7. National Institute of Environmental Research (2009) A study on the estimation of PM2.5 emission characteristics and contribution
8. National Institute of Environmental Research (2013) Handbook of estimation methods for national air pollutant emissions (III)
9. National Institute of Environmental Research (2014) Handbook of estimation methods for air pollutant emissions due to biomass burning
10. National Institute of Environmental Research (2015) Air pollutant emission factors
11. National Institute of Environmental Research (2018) 2015 national air pollutant emissions
12. National Institute of Environmental Research (2018) Standard operations procedure for the construction of supporting data for national air pollutant emissions
13. National Institute of Environmental Research (2018) Research for the development of methods and roadmap improvement for the assessment of national air pollutant emissions

Appendix


1. Trends in CO emissions
Emission source category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Change
Energy
production
Public power generation 43,583 45,376 47,807 41,534 33,425 -19.5%
District heating production plants 2,742 2,976 3,168 3,675 3,365 -8.5%
Oil refinery 1,541 1,121 1,842 2,320 2,136 -7.9%
Private power generation 8,336 9,717 10,641 10,327 16,212 57.0%
Subtotal 56,202 59,190 63,457 57,856 55,138 -4.7%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 12,050 11,177 16,989 16,227 16,956 4.5%
Residential facilities 66,409 66,647 69,180 59,341 54,445 -8.3%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 1,345 1,328 1,363 1,026 898 -12.5%
Subtotal 79,804 79,152 87,532 76,594 72,299 -5.6%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 1,480 1,222 2,016 1,389 1,608 15.7%
Processes 7,189 6,261 8,082 6,587 6,607 0.3%
Others 10,511 11,659 10,028 10,740 8,639 -19.6%
Subtotal 19,179 19,141 20,125 18,716 16,854 -9.9%
Industrial
process
Petroleum industry 11,772 12,047 11,322 11,545 12,069 4.5%
Iron and steel industry 4,367 5,076 5,103 5,638 5,761 2.2%
Inorganic chemical industry 1,308 477 474 485 487 0.4%
Organic chemical industry 1,196 1,263 5,248 5,316 5,011 -5.8%
Pulp and paper industry 2,479 1,545 2,521 2,604 2,469 -5.2%
Others 283 240 244 267 272 2.0%
Subtotal 21,406 20,648 24,912 25,855 26,069 0.8%
Road transport Passenger cars 144,924 137,305 123,022 136,451 123,534 -9.5%
Taxis 26,275 27,209 27,101 1,757 1,151 -34.5%
Vans 5,388 5,319 5,082 3,730 3,203 -14.2%
Buses 17,346 18,441 18,494 9,451 6,805 -28.0%
Freight cars 66,776 65,935 64,108 49,976 48,379 -3.2%
Special cars 1,251 1,160 1,208 1,035 830 -19.8%
RV 37,970 35,312 31,932 26,634 21,349 -19.8%
Two-wheeled vehicles 163,613 151,992 138,271 52,190 40,265 -22.8%
Subtotal 463,543 442,672 409,218 281,225 245,516 -12.7%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 4,005 4,039 3,657 3,057 2,734 -10.6%
Ships 7,639 7,626 7,646 54,535 60,491 10.9%
Aircrafts 5,794 6,185 7,228 7,117 7,838 10.1%
Agricultural machineries 7,292 7,287 7,244 7,165 7,097 -0.9%
Construction machineries 43,560 47,813 56,841 54,229 57,540 6.1%
Subtotal 68,290 72,950 82,615 126,103 135,700 7.6%
Waste Waste incineration 1,861 3,300 1,957 1,645 1,548 -5.9%
Others Forest fire and other fire 8,060 6,533 6,865 6,459 7,197 11.4%
Biomass burning Open burning 8,910 8,758 8,565 4,498 4,200 -6.6%
Agricultural residue incineration 134,198 133,682 132,679 155,437 157,616 1.4%
Grilled meat and fish 8 8 8 12 13 4.3%
Wood stoves and boilers 94,745 94,745 94,745 58,938 57,772 -2.0%
Furnace 10,894 10,894 10,894 6,031 5,856 -2.9%
Charcoal burner 13,526 12,816 8,315 7,000 7,000 0.0%
Subtotal 262,282 260,903 255,206 231,917 232,455 0.2%
Total 980,626 964,490 951,888 826,370 792,776 -4.1%


2. Trends in NOx emissions (units: metric tons/year)
Emission source category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Change
Energy
production
Public power generation 126,444 132,405 140,096 127,456 116,250 -8.8%
District heating production plants 3,896 4,032 4,162 4,651 4,116 -11.5%
Oil refinery 12,495 10,647 9,176 8,066 7,818 -3.1%
Private power generation 23,875 22,261 23,784 22,644 22,634 0.0%
Subtotal 166,709 169,346 177,219 162,818 150,818 -7.4%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 32,058 30,141 31,303 29,871 32,630 9.2%
Residential facilities 53,162 52,325 51,882 47,055 46,605 -1.0%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 5,657 5,469 5,584 4,216 3,712 -12.0%
Subtotal 90,876 87,935 88,769 81,143 82,948 2.2%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 12,936 10,767 13,706 13,612 13,955 2.5%
Processes 91,502 85,180 94,292 95,197 94,326 -0.9%
Others 76,781 76,813 70,036 64,852 60,858 -6.2%
Subtotal 181,219 172,761 178,034 173,660 169,139 -2.6%
Industrial
process
Petroleum industry 1,375 1,764 4,632 4,478 4,799 7.2%
Iron and steel industry 40,635 47,339 38,622 38,485 43,671 13.5%
Inorganic chemical industry 4,105 3,881 5,408 4,284 4,882 14.0%
Organic chemical industry - 28 32 23 16 -29.3%
Others 6,961 5,990 6,457 6,042 6,462 7.0%
Subtotal 53,077 59,002 55,151 53,311 59,830 12.2%
Road transport Passenger cars 25,458 23,796 21,697 34,036 36,193 6.3%
Taxis 6,099 6,607 6,722 487 363 -25.6%
Vans 9,592 10,741 11,187 15,346 13,121 -14.5%
Buses 34,575 36,062 35,774 31,365 34,097 8.7%
Freight cars 212,327 232,970 224,980 204,086 206,915 1.4%
Special cars 2,514 2,772 2,550 2,482 2,479 -0.1%
RV 28,517 29,345 29,353 70,509 73,506 4.3%
Two-wheeled vehicles 3,226 3,373 3,458 2,919 2,911 -0.3%
Subtotal 322,307 345,666 335,721 361,230 369,585 2.3%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 9,820 9,897 8,943 7,476 6,688 -10.5%
Ships 89,811 89,658 89,887 144,030 151,735 5.3%
Aircrafts 5,963 6,368 7,423 7,323 8,058 10.0%
Agricultural machineries 16,444 16,470 16,447 16,288 16,209 -0.5%
Construction machineries 95,060 103,169 123,327 116,053 121,686 4.9%
Subtotal 217,098 225,561 246,027 291,171 304,376 4.5%
Waste Waste incineration 8,732 14,782 9,529 12,257 11,977 -2.3%
Others Forest fire and other fire 197 154 165 153 172 12.6%
Biomass burning Open burning 634 623 609 590 550 -6.6%
Agricultural residue incineration 5,012 4,983 4,954 5,423 5,606 3.4%
Grilled meat and fish 6 6 6 9 9 4.2%
Wood stoves and boilers 2,540 2,540 2,540 2,205 2,195 -0.5%
Furnace 954 954 954 528 513 -2.9%
Charcoal burner 74 70 46 10 10 0.0%
Subtotal 9,221 9,177 9,110 8,765 8,883 1.3%
Total 1,049,435 1,084,383 1,099,723 1,144,508 1,157,728 1.2%


3. Trends in SOx emissions (units: metric tons/year)
Emission source category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Change
Energy
production
Public power generation 66,167 73,801 78,786 73,506 71,515 -2.7%
District heating production plants 1,248 797 1,337 1,920 1,531 -20.2%
Oil refinery 9,784 8,090 6,749 13,071 12,405 -5.1%
Private power generation 7,265 8,365 10,692 6,065 5,791 -4.5%
Subtotal 84,464 91,053 97,565 94,562 91,243 -3.5%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 25,175 19,339 9,296 6,328 12,015 89.9%
Residential facilities 19,717 19,496 20,253 17,111 15,471 -9.6%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 9,065 1,411 1,551 1,229 1,249 1.6%
Subtotal 53,957 40,245 31,101 24,668 28,736 16.5%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 6,014 4,229 3,655 3,232 2,441 -24.5%
Processes 21,005 17,550 19,954 19,456 18,811 -3.3%
Others 82,859 74,837 72,227 60,294 63,847 5.9%
Subtotal 109,878 96,617 95,836 82,982 85,098 2.5%
Industrial
process
Petroleum industry 51,963 55,226 59,858 57,572 57,789 0.4%
Iron and steel industry 43,946 48,574 36,723 29,600 35,538 20.1%
Inorganic chemical industry 2,004 2,031 1,533 1,915 1,706 -10.9%
Organic chemical industry 552 583 360 375 448 19.6%
Pulp and paper industry 123 76 125 129 122 -5.2%
Others 10,755 10,702 9,735 9,337 9,781 4.8%
Subtotal 109,342 117,191 108,333 98,927 105,385 6.5%
Road transport Passenger cars 114 63 55 63 67 6.0%
Taxis 14 12 6 5 7 44.3%
Vans 7 5 4 5 5 1.6%
Buses 17 9 9 9 11 28.3%
Freight cars 150 84 82 69 82 18.0%
Special cars 3 2 1 2 2 10.9%
RV 46 27 24 23 27 16.5%
Two-wheeled vehicles 16 8 8 8 8 2.1%
Subtotal 366 211 189 183 209 13.7%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 254 255 228 191 171 -10.5%
Ships 66,646 64,295 64,186 39,074 38,467 -1.6%
Aircrafts 559 595 650 678 729 7.6%
Agricultural machineries 8 4 4 4 4 12.2%
Construction machineries 90 39 51 45 53 18.1%
Subtotal 67,557 65,188 65,119 39,991 39,424 -1.4%
Waste Waste incineration 8,395 7,140 6,517 1,846 2,119 14.8%
Biomass burning Grilled meat and fish 1 1 1 2 2 4.3%
Wood stoves and boilers 121 121 121 62 60 -1.7%
Furnace 17 17 17 9 9 -2.9%
Charcoal burner 15 14 9 8 8 0.0%
Subtotal 154 153 148 80 79 -1.5%
Total 434,113 417,798 404,808 343,241 352,292 2.6%


4. Trends in TSP emissions (units: metric tons/year)
Emission source category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Change
Energy
production
Public power generation 4,246 4,108 4,181 3,976 3,812 -4.1%
District heating production plants 73 76 114 108 132 22.6%
Oil refinery 230 184 140 169 182 8.1%
Private power generation 475 525 527 481 565 17.4%
Subtotal 5,024 4,893 4,961 4,733 4,692 -0.9%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 258 237 145 121 184 52.0%
Residential facilities 1,810 1,720 1,703 1,447 1,349 -6.8%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 494 442 440 340 308 -9.3%
Subtotal 2,562 2,398 2,289 1,908 1,841 -3.5%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 283 251 220 449 445 -1.1%
Processes 6,753 3,387 4,763 3,771 3,825 1.4%
Others 146,061 129,672 133,843 98,518 117,399 19.2%
Subtotal 153,097 133,310 138,826 102,738 121,668 18.4%
Industrial
process
Petroleum industry 347 363 447 466 459 -1.5%
Iron and steel industry 8,419 8,526 7,372 7,617 7,740 1.6%
Inorganic chemical industry 683 870 644 635 620 -2.3%
Organic chemical industry 2,197 2,320 1,497 1,558 1,844 18.3%
Pulp and paper industry 47 47 48 44 44 0.5%
Others 1,556 1,827 1,811 1,847 1,168 -36.8%
Subtotal 13,249 13,954 11,819 12,167 11,876 -2.4%
Road transport Passenger cars 28 43 62 81 88 7.7%
Vans 595 619 599 435 328 -24.6%
Buses 374 346 274 223 234 5.0%
Freight cars 8,921 8,933 8,409 6,839 6,694 -2.1%
Special cars 116 106 84 74 58 -21.9%
RV 2,996 2,924 2,675 2,367 2,182 -7.8%
Subtotal 13,030 12,969 12,103 10,019 9,583 -4.4%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 643 646 579 484 433 -10.5%
Ships 6,916 6,905 6,922 6,983 7,091 1.6%
Aircrafts 79 81 93 89 94 5.8%
Agricultural machineries 1,393 1,390 1,380 1,364 1,348 -1.2%
Construction machineries 4,873 5,313 6,196 5,945 6,354 6.9%
Subtotal 13,904 14,336 15,170 14,865 15,320 3.1%
Waste Waste incineration 334 456 330 335 340 1.4%
Others Forest fire and other fire 609 428 488 428 498 16.5%
Fugitive dust Paved road dust 128,669 134,261 136,717 140,840 143,644 2.0%
Construction 37,332 34,216 34,243 40,356 55,714 38.1%
Playground 36,160 55,428 32,534 27,519 27,403 -0.4%
Load and unload 27 27 25 25 26 4.8%
Agricultural 30,361 30,583 29,657 29,553 29,072 -1.6%
Livestock 27,275 28,987 29,263 29,745 30,524 2.6%
Waste 12,805 13,166 13,112 12,655 14,414 13.9%
Unpaved road dust 307,798 244,283 273,654 115,250 107,445 -6.8%
Subtotal 580,427 540,950 549,207 395,944 408,242 3.1%
Biomass burning Open burning 1,544 1,518 1,485 1,438 1,342 -6.6%
Agricultural residue incineration 21,667 21,334 21,174 22,085 22,126 0.2%
Grilled meat and fish 378 394 420 606 626 3.3%
Wood stoves and boilers 7,225 7,225 7,225 4,173 4,072 -2.4%
Furnace 314 314 314 173 168 -2.9%
Charcoal burner 3,143 2,978 1,932 1,849 1,849 0.0%
Subtotal 34,271 33,762 32,550 30,323 30,183 -0.5%
Total 816,508 757,456 767,743 573,460 604,243 5.4%


5. Trends in PM10 emissions (units: metric tons/year)
Emission source category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Change
Energy
production
Public power generation 3,901 3,920 3,831 3,854 3,681 -4.5%
District heating production plants 60 64 95 85 113 33.1%
Oil refinery 136 109 89 104 57 -45.3%
Private power generation 450 489 509 465 544 16.8%
Subtotal 4,546 4,582 4,524 4,508 4,394 -2.5%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 238 219 135 112 170 51.8%
Residential facilities 1,522 1,439 1,416 1,206 1,129 -6.4%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 453 405 404 312 283 -9.3%
Subtotal 2,213 2,062 1,955 1,629 1,582 -2.9%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 239 208 180 323 249 -22.8%
Processes 4,168 2,111 2,900 2,282 2,290 0.4%
Others 85,056 75,515 77,933 57,370 68,354 19.1%
Subtotal 89,463 77,833 81,014 59,975 70,893 18.2%
Industrial
process
Petroleum industry 100 105 129 135 133 -1.5%
Iron and steel industry 5,408 5,454 4,645 4,755 4,833 1.6%
Inorganic chemical industry 390 488 367 359 348 -2.9%
Organic chemical industry 1,121 1,183 764 795 940 18.3%
Pulp and paper industry 28 28 29 27 27 0.5%
Others 347 342 314 337 377 11.9%
Subtotal 7,394 7,600 6,249 6,407 6,658 3.9%
Road transport Passenger cars 28 43 62 81 88 7.7%
Vans 595 619 599 435 328 -24.6%
Buses 374 346 274 223 234 5.0%
Freight cars 8,921 8,933 8,409 6,839 6,694 -2.1%
Special cars 116 106 84 74 58 -21.9%
RV 2,996 2,924 2,675 2,367 2,182 -7.8%
Subtotal 13,030 12,969 12,103 10,019 9,583 -4.4%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 643 646 579 484 433 -10.5%
Ships 6,916 6,905 6,922 6,983 7,091 1.6%
Aircrafts 76 78 90 85 90 5.8%
Agricultural machineries 1,393 1,390 1,380 1,364 1,348 -1.2%
Construction machineries 4,873 5,313 6,196 5,945 6,354 6.9%
Subtotal 13,901 14,332 15,167 14,861 15,317 3.1%
Waste Waste incineration 242 330 243 247 246 0.0%
Others Forest fire and other fire 386 272 310 272 317 16.4%
Fugitive dust Paved road dust 24,698 25,772 26,243 27,034 27,573 2.0%
Construction 25,610 23,472 23,491 27,685 38,221 38.1%
Playground 14,103 21,617 12,688 10,733 10,687 -0.4%
Load and unload 10 9 9 9 9 4.8%
Agricultural 10,347 10,439 10,142 10,141 9,961 -1.8%
Livestock 9,114 9,684 9,778 9,939 10,200 2.6%
Waste 3,442 3,537 3,525 3,416 3,926 14.9%
Unpaved road dust 25,945 20,591 23,067 9,715 9,057 -6.8%
Subtotal 113,267 115,121 108,942 98,671 109,633 11.1%
Biomass burning Open burning 1,056 1,038 1,015 984 919 -6.6%
Agricultural residue incineration 9,023 8,869 8,820 9,121 9,183 0.7%
Grilled meat and fish 378 394 420 606 626 3.3%
Wood stoves and boilers 3,365 3,365 3,365 2,002 1,958 -2.2%
Furnace 206 206 206 114 111 -2.9%
Charcoal burner 2,987 2,830 1,836 1,757 1,757 0.0%
Subtotal 17,016 16,702 15,663 14,583 14,552 -0.2%
Total 261,460 251,804 246,168 211,172 233,177 10.4%


6. Trends in PM2.5 emissions (units: metric tons/year)
Emission source category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Change
Energy
production
Public power generation 3,057 3,161 3,006 3,162 2,989 -5.5%
District heating production plants 48 53 78 63 99 57.1%
Oil refinery 52 42 43 46 23 -49.9%
Private power generation 377 404 446 407 496 21.7%
Subtotal 3,534 3,660 3,573 3,679 3,607 -2.0%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 143 134 87 72 109 50.6%
Residential facilities 917 889 889 782 745 -4.6%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 266 246 250 191 171 -10.5%
Subtotal 1,326 1,269 1,226 1,045 1,025 -1.9%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 131 117 101 165 121 -26.6%
Processes 2,004 1,103 1,525 1,245 1,226 -1.6%
Others 43,585 38,480 39,980 28,912 34,971 21.0%
Subtotal 45,721 39,700 41,606 30,322 36,317 19.8%
Industrial
process
Petroleum industry 22 23 28 30 29 -1.5%
Iron and steel industry 4,300 4,319 3,603 3,636 3,705 1.9%
Inorganic chemical industry 215 298 209 202 194 -3.5%
Organic chemical industry 1,009 1,065 687 715 846 18.3%
Pulp and paper industry 19 19 19 17 18 0.6%
Others 312 307 283 303 340 11.9%
Subtotal 5,876 6,032 4,829 4,903 5,132 4.7%
Road transport Passenger cars 26 40 57 75 81 7.7%
Vans 547 569 551 400 302 -24.6%
Buses 344 318 252 205 215 5.0%
Freight cars 8,207 8,218 7,736 6,292 6,159 -2.1%
Special cars 107 97 77 68 53 -21.9%
RV 2,757 2,690 2,461 2,178 2,008 -7.8%
Subtotal 11,988 11,932 11,135 9,218 8,817 -4.4%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 591 594 533 446 399 -10.5%
Ships 6,363 6,352 6,369 6,423 6,539 1.8%
Aircrafts 70 72 82 78 83 5.8%
Agricultural machineries 1,281 1,279 1,269 1,255 1,240 -1.2%
Construction machineries 4,487 4,888 5,700 5,469 5,846 6.9%
Subtotal 12,792 13,186 13,953 13,671 14,106 3.2%
Waste Waste incineration 209 265 202 204 209 2.8%
Others Forest fire and other fire 348 244 279 245 285 16.4%
Fugitive dust Paved road dust 5,975 6,235 6,349 6,541 6,671 2.0%
Construction 2,561 2,347 2,349 2,769 3,822 38.1%
Playground 2,115 3,243 1,903 1,610 1,603 -0.4%
Load and unload 1 1 1 1 1 4.8%
Agricultural 2,069 2,088 2,028 2,028 1,992 -1.8%
Livestock 1,730 1,842 1,837 1,840 1,861 1.1%
Waste 344 354 352 342 393 14.9%
Unpaved road dust 2,594 2,059 2,307 971 906 -6.8%
Subtotal 17,390 18,168 17,127 16,101 17,248 7.1%
Biomass burning Open burning 937 921 901 873 815 -6.6%
Agricultural residue incineration 7,451 7,330 7,290 7,563 7,621 0.8%
Grilled meat and fish 350 365 389 556 574 3.3%
Wood stoves and boilers 2,197 2,197 2,197 1,326 1,298 -2.1%
Furnace 164 164 164 92 89 -2.9%
Charcoal burner 2,831 2,683 1,740 1,664 1,664 0.0%
Subtotal 13,930 13,659 12,681 12,073 12,060 -0.1%
Total 113,114 108,114 106,610 91,460 98,806 8.0%


7. Trends in Black Carbon emissions (units: metric tons/year)
Emission source category 2014 2015 Change
Energy production Public power generation 219 146 -33.3%
District heating production plants 17 28 59.0%
Oil refinery 5 1 -75.3%
Private power generation 83 132 58.8%
Subtotal 324 307 -5.2%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 9 13 34.4%
Residential facilities 130 128 -2.0%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 16 14 -12.5%
Subtotal 156 155 -0.9%
Manufacturing industry Combustion facilities 20 14 -28.5%
Processes 74 60 -18.6%
Others 554 666 20.1%
Subtotal 648 741 14.2%
Industrial process Petroleum industry 0.02 0.02 -1.5%
Iron and steel industry 11 11 0.6%
Pulp and paper industry 0.1 0.1 2.4%
Others 4 5 15.7%
Subtotal 15 16 4.9%
Road transport Passenger cars 33 39 18.4%
Vans 240 183 -23.9%
Buses 158 166 5.0%
Freight cars 3,939 3,873 -1.7%
Special cars 52 41 -21.9%
RV 1,252 1,154 -7.8%
Subtotal 5,674 5,456 -3.8%
Non-road transport Railroads 344 308 -10.5%
Ships 1,004 1,042 3.8%
Aircrafts 61 64 5.8%
Agricultural machineries 968 956 -1.2%
Construction machineries 4,218 4,509 6.9%
Subtotal 6,594 6,879 4.3%
Waste Waste incineration 3 3 2.8%
Others Forest fire and other fire 11 15 27.7%
Fugitive dust Paved road dust 68 70 2.0%
Playground 0.3 0.3 -0.4%
Load and unload 0.04 0.04 4.8%
Agricultural 0.4 0.4 -1.8%
Livestock 28 27 -3.2%
Unpaved road dust 11 10 -6.8%
Subtotal 108 108 -0.3%
Biomass burning Open burning 37 34 -6.6%
Agricultural residue incineration 1,707 1,709 0.1%
Grilled meat and fish 23 23 3.3%
Wood stoves and boilers 219 213 -2.4%
Furnace 13 13 -2.9%
Charcoal burner 263 263 0.0%
Subtotal 2,261 2,255 -0.3%
Total 15,795 15,934 0.9%


8. Trends in VOC s emissions (units: metric tons/year)
Emission source category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Change
Energy
production
Public power generation 5,797 6,032 6,331 5,486 4,497 -18.0%
District heating production plants 393 416 432 509 472 -7.3%
Oil refinery 332 262 352 318 327 3.0%
Private power generation 1,100 1,282 1,430 1,384 2,169 56.7%
Subtotal 7,623 7,992 8,545 7,697 7,464 -3.0%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 923 931 774 722 795 10.1%
Residential facilities 1,941 1,944 1,932 1,777 1,773 -0.2%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 85 79 79 59 53 -10.4%
Subtotal 2,948 2,953 2,784 2,558 2,622 2.5%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 249 184 282 193 222 15.1%
Processes 1,080 902 1,169 1,134 1,079 -4.9%
Others 2,231 2,287 2,086 1,953 1,800 -7.8%
Subtotal 3,560 3,373 3,537 3,280 3,101 -5.5%
Industrial
process
Petroleum industry 54,641 55,919 52,553 53,588 56,021 4.5%
Iron and steel industry 16,264 17,845 17,847 19,325 19,408 0.4%
Inorganic chemical industry 1,118 624 606 579 564 -2.5%
Organic chemical industry 39,609 41,289 43,790 44,050 44,417 0.8%
Pulp and paper industry 1 1 1 1 1 0.0%
Food and beverage industry 34,298 50,509 58,871 62,275 61,943 -0.5%
Others 567 479 487 534 544 2.0%
Subtotal 146,499 166,668 174,156 180,351 182,899 1.4%
Energy transport
and storage
Gasoline supply 25,318 26,985 27,241 27,645 29,137 5.4%
Solvents use Painting facilities 354,127 358,870 354,465 339,582 344,671 1.5%
Washing facilities 24,428 25,462 26,835 27,701 28,144 1.6%
Laundry facilities 22,473 22,115 21,836 21,304 20,407 -4.2%
Other solvent use 158,633 159,048 158,934 160,731 162,137 0.9%
Subtotal 559,662 565,495 562,070 549,318 555,359 1.1%
Road transport Passenger cars 20,031 19,138 17,536 18,045 16,071 -10.9%
Taxis 1,041 1,043 1,017 89 61 -31.8%
Vans 1,083 1,130 1,164 632 531 -16.0%
Buses 11,379 12,474 12,850 12,134 12,366 1.9%
Freight cars 14,868 14,828 14,848 11,436 11,514 0.7%
Special cars 310 294 311 266 246 -7.6%
RV 3,101 2,916 2,824 2,610 2,384 -8.7%
Two-wheeled vehicles 17,246 15,954 15,258 4,255 2,973 -30.1%
Subtotal 69,059 67,776 65,807 49,468 46,145 -6.7%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 1,609 1,620 1,466 1,225 1,095 -10.6%
Ships 2,478 2,473 2,480 18,340 20,970 14.3%
Aircrafts 514 560 578 672 700 4.1%
Agricultural machineries 2,002 1,997 1,978 1,955 1,933 -1.1%
Construction machineries 10,155 13,623 15,785 14,681 15,613 6.4%
Subtotal 16,758 20,274 22,288 36,873 40,311 9.3%
Waste Waste incineration 34,944 44,843 42,907 44,612 53,173 19.2%
Others 5,934 4,414 3,601 3,449 3,901 13.1%
Subtotal 40,879 49,257 46,508 48,061 57,074 18.8%
Others Forest fire and other fire 803 549 637 551 648 17.5%
Biomass burning Open burning 5,174 5,086 4,974 4,807 4,488 -6.6%
Agricultural residue incineration 61,942 61,210 60,450 61,154 61,408 0.4%
Grilled meat and fish 99 103 107 147 154 4.8%
Wood stoves and boilers 28,154 28,154 28,154 17,406 17,071 -1.9%
Furnace 3,046 3,046 3,046 1,687 1,638 -2.9%
Charcoal burner 7,738 7,331 4,757 1,254 1,254 0.0%
Subtotal 106,153 104,930 101,487 86,454 86,012 -0.5%
Total 979,262 1,016,252 1,015,059 992,256 1,010,771 1.9%


9. Trends in NH3 emissions (units: metric tons/year)
Emission source category 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Change
Energy
production
Public power generation 884 1,008 1,117 798 557 -30.1%
District heating production plants 124 123 122 145 128 -11.4%
Oil refinery 207 163 181 174 198 13.5%
Private power generation 250 293 325 308 496 61.1%
Subtotal 1,465 1,586 1,745 1,425 1,379 -3.2%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 589 563 507 498 567 13.9%
Residential facilities 723 701 667 618 641 3.7%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 215 212 218 164 143 -12.5%
Subtotal 1,528 1,477 1,392 1,280 1,351 5.6%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 109 65 84 57 67 17.1%
Processes 307 245 309 229 233 2.0%
Others 446 492 407 431 327 -24.1%
Subtotal 863 803 800 717 627 -12.5%
Industrial
process
Petroleum industry 22,808 23,341 21,936 22,368 23,384 4.5%
Iron and steel industry 1,310 1,523 1,531 1,691 1,728 2.2%
Inorganic chemical industry 1,015 3,209
Ammonia consumption 8,397 9,933 11,584 13,984 14,320 2.4%
Subtotal 33,530 38,006 35,051 38,043 39,432 3.7%
Road transport Passenger cars 9,011 9,434 9,631 9,906 9,863 -0.4%
Vans 8 8 8 8 7 -19.0%
Buses 10 11 10 12 14 12.2%
Freight cars 86 91 90 83 88 5.4%
Special cars 2 2 2 2 2 -1.5%
RV 44 47 48 52 56 6.9%
Two-wheeled vehicles 47 49 48 49 50 2.2%
Subtotal 9,208 9,641 9,839 10,113 10,078 -0.3%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 19 19 16 14 12 -10.2%
Ships 114 113 114 13 14 5.5%
Agricultural machineries 53 54 54 53 53 -0.4%
Construction machineries 476 29 37 36 38 4.9%
Subtotal 662 214 220 116 117 0.8%
Waste Others 23 24 23 23 22 -3.2%
Agriculture Fertilizer use 21,759 23,267 21,691 20,172 19,901 -1.3%
Manure management 194,694 215,707 209,426 207,781 211,362 1.7%
Subtotal 216,453 238,975 231,117 227,953 231,263 1.5%
Others Animals 12,684 12,737 12,785 12,832 12,882 0.4%
Biomass burning Open burning 3 3 3 2 2 -6.6%
Agricultural residue incineration 5 5 5 5 5 -4.0%
Wood stoves and boilers 10 10 10 6 6 -1.7%
Furnace 3 3 3 2 2 -2.9%
Subtotal 20 20 20 16 15 -3.4%
Total 276,435 303,483 292,993 292,517 297,167 1.6%