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Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment - Vol. 14 , No. 4

[ Technical Information ]
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment - Vol. 14, No. 4, pp.422-445
Abbreviation: Asian J. Atmos. Environ
ISSN: 1976-6912 (Print) 2287-1160 (Online)
Print publication date 31 Dec 2020
Received 11 Aug 2020 Revised 18 Nov 2020 Accepted 09 Dec 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.5572/ajae.2020.14.4.422

Analysis of the National Air Pollutant Emission Inventory (CAPSS 2016) and the Major Cause of Change in Republic of Korea
Seong-woo Choi ; Taekyu Kim ; Hyang-kyeong Lee ; Hyung-cheon Kim ; Jihyun Han ; Kyoung-bin Lee ; Eun-hyouck Lim ; Sang-ho Shin1) ; Hyung-ah Jin2) ; Eugene Cho3) ; Young-min Kim1) ; Chul Yoo*
Emission Inventory Management Team, National Air Emission Inventory and Research Center, Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea
1)Policy Support Team, National Air Emission Inventory and Research Center, Chungcheongbuk-do, Republic of Korea
2)Air Quality Improvement Bureau, National Council on Climate and Air Quality, Seoul, Republic of Korea
3)GHG Inventory Management Team, Greenhouse Gas Inventory and Research Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Correspondence to : * Tel: +82-(0)43-279-4550 E-mail: s7424yoo@korea.kr


Copyright © 2020 by Asian Association for Atmospheric Environment
This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In 2016, air pollutant emissions in the Republic of Korea were 795,044 metric tons (hereafter tons) of CO, 1,248,309 tons of NOx, 358,951 tons of SOx, 611,539 tons of TSP, 233,085 tons of PM10, 100,247 tons of PM2.5, 16,401 tons of BC, 1,024,029 tons of VOCs, and 301,301 tons of NH3. Including energy production, thirteen emission sources, which comprise the national air pollutant emission inventory, were classified by their characteristics into five sectors (Energy, Industry, Road, Non-road, and Everyday Activities and Other Emission Sources) to analyze their relative contributions to the national emissions. Specifically, their contributions by pollutant were as follows: NOx (11.0%), SOx (21.9%), PM2.5 (3.2%), VOCs (0.8%), NH3 (0.5%) from the energy sector; NOx (20.2%), SOx (59.7%), PM2.5 (42.1%), VOCs (24.3%), and NH3 (14.4%) from the industry sector; NOx (36.3%), SOx (0.1%), PM2.5 (9.7%), VOCs (4.6%), and NH3 (1.7%) from the road sector; NOx (24.8%), SOx (11.5%), PM2.5 (14.3%), VOCs (4.0%), and NH3 (0.04%) from the non-road sector; and NOx (7.6%), SOx (6.7%), PM2.5 (30.6%), VOCs (66.3%), and NH3 (83.4%) from the everyday activities and other emission sources sector. The data we calculate are used as official national emissions data for the establishment, implementation, and assessment of national atmospheric environment policy to improve air quality. As critical and necessary materials, the data are also utilized on a wide range of studies on policies such as customized regional particulate matter reduction measures. Thus, it is crucial to estimate highly reliable national emissions by enhancing the emissions factors and inventory and to establish a scientific emissions testing system by using air quality modeling and satellite data.


Keywords: CAPSS, Atmospheric pollutants, Particulate matter, Ultrafine particulate matter, National air pollutant emissions

1. INTRODUCTION

Air pollution, including particle pollution is becoming a serious issue worldwide. To be more specific, industrialization has led the world population, traffic, and energy consumption to increase, which is consequently exacerbating air quality. Furthermore, transboundary air pollutants are having an adverse effect not only on polluting countries but also on their neighboring ones (Li et al., 2014). This makes it clear that air pollution arising from such pollutants must be tackled from a global perspective. To improve air quality, Southeastern Asian countries such as South Korea, China, and Japan, are implementing a wide range of policies, which include energy efficiency improvement and reduction of air pollutants emissions (Wang et al., 2014).

Estimating air pollutant emissions data is vital for informing policy and research to improve the atmospheric environment. However, it is a delicate issue due to the various politico-economic interests involved. Nevertheless, these data are needed to establish policies for atmosphere management and to counter climate change and are an important tool for policy setting and outcome assessment.

Looking at the state of emissions in major developed countries, in the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) compiles and publishes the National Emission Inventory (NEI), focusing on general air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Meanwhile, in the European Union, its member states are asked to submit their own emissions data on CO2, CH4, N2O, SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, PFCs, and SF6, which are maintained and released by the European Environment Agency (EEA). Most of the members use the standardized CORINAIR system.

In the Republic of Korea, the National Air Emission Inventory and Research Center (hereafter “the NAIR”) estimates the annual emissions of the air pollutants, CO, NOx, SOx, TSP, PM10, PM2.5, BC, VOCs, and NH3, via the Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS). To this end, around 300 data points are collected from 150 domestic institutions (as of 2016 emissions). Emissions are calculated by applying the emissions factors and control efficiency for each emission source/fuel to the appropriate activity level for each emission source.

The estimated emissions play the role of the official air pollutants emissions data for the Republic of Korea, which are then used as the basis to establish and analyze the expected effects of policies for air improvement, such as the combined air improvement plan, the basic plan for atmospheric environment management in the capital, special measures against particulate matter, and combined measures to control particular matter. It is also used as input data for air quality prediction models. Thus, alongside air pollution monitoring network data, emissions data are the most important basic data.

In addition, the data are used in the Korean version of Greenhouse Gas - Air pollution Interaction and Synergies (GAINS), an integrated analysis model for climate and air which is widely used in various studies in Europe and Asia (Seong et al., 2019), and also used in building an emission inventory of Southeast Asia, which were cited from the KORUS-AQ (Korea-United States Air Quality) study, a joint research project conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Research in Korea and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Choi et al., 2019; Goldberg et al., 2019; Miyazaki et al., 2019).

In this report, we describe the results of 2016 emissions estimates and analyze the major factors contributing to changes from 2015.


2. METHODS OF ESTIMATION NATIONAL AIR POLLUTANT EMISSIONS
2. 1 Emission Source Classification and Emission Factors

To estimate national air pollutant emissions data, we established an emission source classification system by combining the CORINAIR classification system from Europe with the domestic industrial classification system for air pollutant emission sources. Thus, we classified emission sources into thirteen categories including energy production, non-industry, manufacturing industry, industrial processes, energy transport and storage, solvent use, road transport, nonroad transport, waste, agriculture, other, fugitive dust, and biomass burning. These categories were further classified into 57 subcategories, which were further categorized into 241 subgroups to estimate emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, TSP, PM10, PM2.5, BC, VOC, and NH3.

Emission factors are displayed as emissions per unit activity. Currently, approximately 30,000 emission factors are used in the national emissions estimate. Incidentally, while emission factors developed from research by domestic scientific research institutes such as the National Institute of Environmental Research are primarily used in the estimate, in most cases, the factors from the US EPA and the EU CORNIAIR are used except for a couple of emission sources including vehicles, construction machineries, and combustion facilities (NIER, 2015).

2. 2 Method for Activity Level and Emission Estimation

To estimate national air pollutant emissions, we determined the basic activity level after collecting 300 sets of statistics from approximately 150 institutions related to energy, industry, transport, and meteorology. There are usually three ways to validate those data: comparing the totals of raw data and registered data on the database to identify errors which might have happened when registering data in the first place; studying the previous results regarding the newly collected data and analyzing changes compared to the previous year; and comparing with other similar data.

Based on these basic data established, emissions from each emission source were calculated by applying different calculation methods to different sources. Generally, two approaches were taken to estimate emissions depending on the type of emission source: a bottom-up approach and a top-down approach.

Emissions from point pollution sources were estimated using a bottom-up approach based on data collected from the Stack Emission Management System (SEMS). On the other hand, those from area sources were estimated using a top-down approach based on national statistics on fuel regarding the amount of fuel sales and LNG supply, and coal consumption except for fuel consumed in point pollution sources. Emissions from transport were also estimated by using the top-down approach based on statistics on traffic volume. Incidentally, emission factors by pollutant were taken into account in those estimates. A spatial allocation model was then used for the estimated emissions and regional emissions were estimated based on factors such as SEMS coordinates and addresses for industrial sites and traffic volume for transport, respectively (NIER, 2013).

To perform quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) activities, the NAIR publishes a standard operating procedure (SOP) guide, which covers each stage ranging from collection of activity level data needed to estimate national emissions to validation of them, a handbook on methods for emission estimation, and an information package on emission factors. Arguably, this is necessary to ensure that the estimation methods are consistent and universal and to enhance reliability of the emission inventory (NIER, 2019a).

2. 3 Record of Major Improvements in Emissions

The methodology for estimating air pollutant emissions was reviewed by the National Emissions Data Management Committee of the NAIR based on relevant domestic and overseas research results. Furthermore, past emissions were re-estimated using the latest methodology in the event of major changes in emissions due to the addition of new substances or the discovery of new emission sources in order to ensure the consistency of emission trends analysis. To estimate the national emissions in 2016 in a more accurate manner, several improvements were made to the estimation methods. For example, new PM emissions factors for vehicles on gasoline and LPG multi-point injection (MPI) engines were applied to estimate road transport emissions. Also, new PM emissions factors for two-wheeled vehicles (with four-stroke engines) were applied, and NOx and NH3 emissions factors for small diesel vehicles (Euro 3 and Euro 4 emission standards) were updated to the present 2016 COPERT emission factors. Moreover, new emissions factors for CO, HC, NOx, PM, NH3, and SOx for hybrid vehicles and NOx emissions factors for such diesel vehicles as passenger cars, RVs, freight cars, special cars, and buses (before Euro 3 emission standards), which reflected the actual road driving conditions, were applied as well. When it came to non-road transport emissions, emissions factors for CO, HC, NOx, and PM for construction machineries (2015 model year onwards) reflecting the Tier 4 emission standards were applied.


3. 2016 EMISSIONS ESTIMATES
3. 1 Air Pollutant Emissions
3. 1. 1 Emissions per Substance and Emission Source

In 2016, the nationwide emissions of air pollutants included 795,044 tons of CO, 1,248,309 tons of NOx, 358,951 tons of SOx, 611,539 tons of TSP, 233,085 tons of PM10, 100,247 tons of PM2.5, 16,401 tons of BC, 1,024,029 tons of VOCs, and 301,301 tons of NH3 (Table 1) (NIER, 2019b).

Table 1. 
2016 emissions and the relative contribution of air pollutants per major emission source category. (units: tons/year)
Source
category
CO NOx SOx TSP PM10 PM2.5 BC VOC NH3
Total 795,044 1,248,309 358,951 611,539 233,085 100,247 16,401 1,024,029 301,301
(100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) (100%) 100%) (100%) (100%)
Energy
production
58,579 145,445 91,696 4,273 3,951 3,253 330 8,001 1,559
(7.4%) (11.7%) (25.5%) (0.7%) (1.7%) (3.2%) (2.0%) (0.8%) (0.5%)
Non industry 67,735 85,824 24,015 1,694 1,468 978 161 2,740 1,415
(8.5%) (6.9%) (6.7%) (0.3%) (0.6%) (1.0%) (1.0%) (0.3%) (0.5%)
Manufacturing
industry
18,170 175,332 86,593 123,138 71,794 36,785 776 3,342 672
(2.3%) (14.0%) (24.1%) (20.1%) (30.8%) (36.7%) (4.7%) (0.3%) (0.2%)
Industrial
processes
27,340 55,932 112,734 12,056 6,731 5,191 17 186,104 42,489
(3.4%) (4.5%) (31.4%) (2.0%) (2.9%) (5.2%) (0.1%) (18.2%) (14.1%)
Energy transport
and storage
30,160
(2.9%)
Solvent use 558,004
(54.5%)
Road transport 244,556 452,995 231 10,596 10,596 9,748 5,930 47,561 5,071
(30.8%) (36.3%) (0.1%) (1.7%) (4.5%) (9.7%) (36.2%) (4.6%) (1.7%)
Non-road
transport
136,612 309,986 41,443 15,592 15,588 14,354 6,781 40,816 117
(17.2%) (24.8%) (11.5%) (2.5%) (6.7%) (14.3%) (41.3%) (4.0%) (0.04%)
Waste 2,008 13,570 2,161 406 295 252 4 58,988 22
(0.3%) (1.1%) (0.6%) (0.1%) (0.1%) (0.3%) (0.02%) (5.8%) (0.01%)
Agriculture 237,017
(78.7%)
Other 6,977 167 481 306 275 14 624 12,924
(0.9%) (0.01%) (0.1%) (0.1%) (0.3%) (0.1%) (0.1%) (4.3%)
Fugitive dust 412,686 107,735 17,286 115
(67.5%) (46.2%) (17.2%) (0.7%)
Biomass burning 233,066 9,059 78 30,618 14,623 12,124 2,274 87,687 15
(29.3%) (0.7%) (0.02%) (5.0%) (6.3%) (12.1%) (13.9%) (8.6%) (0.01%)
*BC: BC(Black Carbon) as EC(Elemental Carbon)

The main emission sources’ proportion of total emissions per pollutant were as follows: road transport (30.8%), biomass burning (29.3%), and non-road transport (17.2%) for CO; road transport (36.3%), non-road transport (24.8%), and manufacturing industry (14.0%) for NOx; industrial processes (31.4%), energy production (25.5%), and manufacturing industry (24.1%) for SOx; fugitive dust (67.5%) and manufacturing industry (20.1%) for TSP; fugitive dust (46.2%) and manufacturing industry (30.8%) for PM10; manufacturing industry (36.7%), fugitive dust (17.2%), and non-road transport (14.3%) for PM2.5; non-road transport (41.3%) and road transport (36.2%) for BC; solvent use (54.5%) and industrial processes (18.2%) for VOCs; and agriculture (78.7%) and industrial processes (14.1%) for NH3 (Fig. 1).


Fig. 1. 
2016 emission contributions of different emission source categories, per pollutant.

3. 1. 2 Analysis on Changes in Emissions compared to the Previous Year

On an annual basis, the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) asks its member states to submit national emissions estimates for CO, NOx, SOx, PM10, PM2.5 and NMVOC (Non-methane Volatile Organic Compounds) from mobile and stationary sources, collects and makes the data public (https://stats.oecd.org/).

Republic of Korea also submits its national emissions estimates based on the CAPSS annually. However, a few emission sources on the domestic classification system are not included in the OECD submission criteria, resulting in gaps between the annual total national emissions estimates and those submitted to the OECD.

Table 2 represents national air pollutant emissions for the OECD member states. According to the OECD, Canada saw a 4.4% decrease in NMVOCs emissions while SOx emissions dropped in the UK (-28.4%), the US (-19.1%), France (-11.7%), and Germany (-7.3%), respectively. Meanwhile, PM2.5 emissions in Republic of Korea and CO emissions in Japan increased by 2.4% and 10.9%, respectively while PM10 and PM2.5 emissions estimates in Japan were not provided with.

Table 2. 
National air pollutant emissions for the OECD member states. (unit: 1,000 tons/year)
CO NOx SOx PM10 PM2.5 NMVOCs
2015 2016 Charge 2015 2016 Charge 2015 2016 Charge 2015 2016 Charge 2015 2016 Charge 2015 2016 Charge
Canada 5,733.0 5,682.7 -0.9% 1,774.6 1,714.6 -3.4% 1,068.4 1,052.7 -1.5% 8,503.8 8,550.0 0.5% 1,595.4 1,594.9 -0.03% 1,930.1 1,844.6 -4.4%
France 2,665.3 2,698.0 1.2% 867.4 824.4 -5.0% 159.2 140.6 -11.7% 230.0 229.9 -0.1% 149.5 149.2 -0.2% 633.9 617.5 -2.6%
Germany 3,175.1 3,036.3 -4.4% 1,364.1 1,333.1 -2.3% 335.8 311.2 -7.3% 219.0 204.0 -6.9% 105.6 99.6 -5.7% 1,166.1 1,160.0 -0.5%
Japan 2,507.2 2,779.4 10.9% 1,302.2 1,421.7 9.2% 701.7 700.9 -0.1% - - - - - - 905.0 905.7 0.1%
Republic of Korea 714.9 718.3 0.5% 1,154.8 1,245.4 7.8% 352.2 358.9 1.9% 146.3 150.1 2.6% 84.3 86.3 2.4% 960.9 973.4 1.3%
United Kingdom 1,692.7 1,562.2 -7.7% 1,006.4 916.4 -8.9% 249.9 178.8 -28.4% 167.4 169.7 1.4% 107.6 106.3 -1.2% 799.1 784.7 -1.8%
United States 48,107.5 43,924.2 -8.7% 10,641.4 10,152.7 -4.6% 3,514.1 2,841.9 -19.1% 14,950.9 14,319.8 -4.2% 3,940.0 3,786.7 -3.9% 12,577.0 11,786.7 -6.3%

3. 1. 3 Analysis on Changes in Emissions Compared to the Previous Year

Although air pollutant emissions have been estimated since 1999, directly comparing with past data is difficult due to annual additions of new emission sources or improvements in estimation methods as mentioned above. Since 2007, anthracite coal imports have been added to the emissions estimate, CleanSYS emissions data have been used, and the VOCs’ emission factors have been changed, resulting in large shifts in emissions for the related substances. In 2011, improvements to emission estimates continued to be pursued, with the addition of PM2.5 emissions and new emission sources such as industrial processes, improvement of the car emission factors for transport, and use of control efficiency of oil mist collection facilities in the energy transport and storage category. In 2012, the estimation methodology was improved in the non-road transport (construction machinery) category, and the activity levels of the food and drinks manufacturing (whiskey and other spirits) and VOCs emission factors were improved. In 2014, fishing vessels and leisure boats were added to the ships category, and the methodology for the road sector was also improved, such as using NOx emissions factors that reflected the actual road driving conditions. In 2016, NOx emissions factors for diesel vehicles (before Euro 3 emission standards) were improved by reflecting the actual road driving conditions, and PM emissions factors for MPI gasoline and LPG vehicles were introduced based on research findings.

In this report, the main causes of change in emissions from 2015 to 2016 are analyzed and described by classifying emission sources into five sectors such as Energy, Industry, Road, Non-road, and Everyday Activities and Other Emission Sources based on NOx, SOx, VOCs and NH3 contributing to the formation of primary and secondary PM2.5, as shown in Table 3. Further details on emissions per pollutant by emission source can be found in Appendices.

Table 3. 
Emission source classification by sector and category.
Source sector Source category
Energy
(Oil refinery not included)
Energy production
Industry
(Oil refinery included)
Manufacturing industry
Industrial processes
Waste
Oil refinery
Road Road transport
Non-road Non-road transport
Everyday activities and other
emission sources
Non industry
Energy transport and storage
Solvent use
Agriculture
Other
Fugitive dust
Biomass burning

3. 1. 3. 1 Energy Sector Emissions

The energy sector included emissions from district heat production plants and power plants, and its contributions to the national emissions by pollutant were as follows: NOx (11.0%), SOx (21.9%), PM2.5 (3.2%), VOCs (0.8%), and NH3 (0.5%). To be more specific, emissions of NOx, SOx, and PM2.5 decreased by 3.7% (2015: 143,000 tons → 2016: 137,744 tons), 0.1% (2015: 78,838 tons → 2016: 78,779 tons), and 9.9% (2015: 3,584 tons → 2016: 3,230 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year while VOCs and NH3 emissions increased by 8.0% (2015: 7,137 tons → 2016: 7,706 tons) and 17.0% (2015: 1,181 tons → 2016: 1,382 tons), respectively (Table 4 and Fig. 2). There was an increase in fuel consumption; nevertheless, there was an overall decrease in the emissions in this sector due to tighter standards in environmental management for each power plant resulting from domestic issues regarding particulate matter.

Table 4. 
Changes in emissions and percentage in the energy sector by pollutant. (units: tons/year)
Source sector Pollutant Emissions Change
(Emissions)
Change
(Percentage)
2015 2016
Energy NOx 143,000 137,744 -5,256 -3.7%
SOx 78,838 78,779 -59 -0.1%
PM2.5 3,584 3,230 -354 -9.9%
VOCs 7,137 7,706 -242 8.0%
NH3 1,181 1,382 201 17.0%


Fig. 2. 
Emissions in the energy sector by pollutant in 2015 and 2016.

The public power generation category’s contributions to the emissions in the energy sector by pollutant were as follows: NOx (79.7%), SOx (90.8%), PM2.5 (80.3%), VOCs (62.7%), and NH3 (51.2%). Specifically, emissions of NOx, SOx, and PM2.5 decreased by 5.6% (2015: 116,250 tons → 2016: 109,721 tons), 0.03% (2015: 71,515 tons → 2016: 71,497 tons), and 13.3% (2015: 2,989 tons → 2016: 2,593 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year while VOCs and NH3 emissions increased by 7.5% (2015: 4,497 tons → 2016: 4,832 tons) and 27.0% (2015: 557 tons → 2016: 708 tons), respectively. While there were increases in fuel consumption such as bituminous coal and LNG compared to the previous year, the emissions by pollutant decreased because tighter standards in environmental management forced each power plant to use reduction catalysts and to improve desulfurization facilities for NOx and SOx reduction and dust collectors such as electric precipitators (ESP) to remove PM2.5.

The contributions of the private power generation category to the emissions in the energy sector by pollutant were as follows: NOx (17.4%), SOx (7.4%), PM2.5 (16.0%), VOCs (29.6%), and NH3 (37.3%). Emissions of NOx, SOx, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 all increased by 5.8% (2015: 22,634 tons → 2016: 23,948 tons), 1.1% (2015: 5,791 tons → 2016: 5,856 tons), 4.3% (2015: 496 tons → 2016: 517 tons), 5.2% (2015: 2,169 tons → 2016: 2,282 tons), and 4.2% (2015: 496 tons → 2016: 516 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year. This was the result of increases in consumption of bituminous coal (13.1%, 2015: 5,718 tons → 2016: 6,466 tons) and LNG (4.7%, 2015: 9.429 billion m3 → 2016: 9.876 billion m3) compared to the previous year.

3. 1. 3. 2 Industry Sector Emissions

Emissions in the industry sector were estimated by summing up those in the categories of manufacturing industry, industrial processes, waste, and oil refineries. Overall, this sector’s contributions to the national emissions by pollutant were as follows: NOx (20.2%), SOx (59.7%), PM2.5 (42.1%), VOCs (24.3%), and NH3 (14.4%); emissions of NOx, SOx, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 all increased by 1.5% (2015: 248,765 tons → 2016: 252,534 tons), 4.6% (2015: 205,007 tons → 2016: 214,406 tons), 1.4% (2015: 41,682 tons → 2016: 42,251 tons), 2.2% (2015: 243,401 tons → 2016: 248,730 tons), and 7.6% (2015: 40,279 tons → 2016: 43,360 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year (Table 5 and Fig. 3).

Table 5. 
Changes in emissions and percentage in the industry sector by pollutant. (units: tons/year)
Source sector Pollutant Emissions Change
(Emissions)
Change
(Percentage)
2015 2016
Industry NOx 248,765 252,534 3,770 1.5%
SOx 205,007 214,406 9,399 4.6%
PM2.5 41,682 42,251 569 1.4%
VOCs 243,401 248,730 5,329 2.2%
NH3 40,279 43,360 3,081 7.6%


Fig. 3. 
Emissions in the industry sector by pollutant in 2015 and 2016.

The contributions of the manufacturing industry category to the emissions in the industry sector by pollutant were as follows: NOx (69.4%), SOx (40.4%), PM2.5 (87.1%), VOCs (1.3%), and NH3 (1.5%). Emissions of NOx, SOx, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 all increased by 3.7% (2015: 169,139 tons → 2016: 175,332 tons), 1.8% (2015: 85,098 tons → 2016: 86,593 tons), 1.3% (2015: 36,317 tons → 2016: 36,785 tons), 7.8% (2015: 3,101 tons → 2016: 3,342 tons), and 7.1% (2015: 627 tons → 2016: 672 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year. These increases resulted from higher consumption of anthracite coal (6.5%, 2015: 8.383 million tons → 2016: 8.927 million tons) and propane (76.4%, 2015: 3.534 billion m3 → 2016: 6.235 billion m3) by the manufacturing industry compared to the previous years.

The contributions of the industrial processes category to the emissions in the industry sector by pollutant were as follows: NOx (22.1%), SOx (52.6%), PM2.5 (12.3%), VOCs (74.8%), and NH3 (98.0%). Compared to the previous year, emissions of NOx saw a decrease of 6.5% (2015: 59,830 tons → 2016: 55,932 tons) while SOx, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 emissions increased by 7.0% (2015: 105,385 tons → 2016: 112,734 tons), 1.2% (2015: 5,132 tons → 2016: 5,191 tons), 1.8% (2015: 182,899 tons → 2016: 186,104 tons), and NH3 7.8% (2015: 39,432 tons → 2016: 42,489 tons), respectively. This was because of a 4.8% increase (2015: 150.862 million kL → 2016: 158.039 million kL) in consumption of crude oil by the petroleum product manufacturing industry in addition to the decreased output of crude steel (0.5%, 2015: 21.170 million tons → 2016: 21.054 million tons) and of sintered products (2.6%, 2015: 61.926 million tons → 2016: 60.328 million tons), respectively, in the iron and steel industry.

The contributions of the waste category to the emissions in the industry sector by pollutant were as follows: NOx (5.4%), SOx (1.0%), PM2.5 (0.6%), VOCs (23.7%), and NH3 (0.1%). Emissions of NOx, SOx, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 all increased by 13.3% (2015: 11,977 tons → 2016: 13,570 tons), 2.0% (2015: 2,119 tons → 2016: 2,161 tons), 20.3% (2015: 209 tons → 2016: 252 tons), 3.4% (2015: 57,074 tons → 2016: 58,988 tons), and 0.8% (2015: 21.9 tons → 2016: 22.1 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year. This was due to the increased amount of incinerated municipal solid waste (7.3%, 2015: 5.019 million tons → 2016: 5.388 million tons) and industrial waste (7.5%, 2015: 7.172 million tons → 2016: 7.710 million tons) compared to the previous year.

3. 1. 3. 3 Road Sector Emissions

The road sector included emissions from passenger cars and freight cars, and its contributions to the national emissions by pollutant were as follows: NOx (36.3%), SOx (0.1%), PM2.5 (9.7%), VOCs (4.6%), and NH3 (1.7%). Emissions of NOx, SOx, PM2.5, and VOCs increased by 22.6% (2015: 369,585 tons → 2016: 452,995 tons), 10.9% (2015: 209 tons → 2016: 231 tons), 10.6% (2015: 8,817 tons → 2016: 9,748 tons), and 3.1% (2015: 46,145 tons → 2016: 47,561 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year while NH3 emissions decreased by 49.7% (2015: 10,078 tons → 2016: 5,071 tons) (Table 6 and Fig. 4).

Table 6. 
Changes in emissions and percentage in the road sector by pollutant. (units: tons/year)
Source sector Pollutant Emissions Change
(Emissions)
Change
(Percentage)
2015 2016
Road NOx 369,585 452,995 83,410 22.6%
SOx 209 231 23 10.9%
PM2.5 8,817 9,748 932 10.6%
VOCs 46,145 47,561 1,416 3.1%
NH3 10,078 5,071 -5,008 -49.7%


Fig. 4. 
Emissions in the road sector by pollutant in 2015 and 2016.

These changes in the emissions were made because of fluctuations in the number of recent cars registered and vehicle kilometers traveled (VKT) by vehicle type (Table 7). Incidentally, improvements in emissions factors for PM2.5 and NH3 led to marked changes in emissions of the pollutants from each vehicle type.

Table 7. 
Changes in the number of registered cars and VKT by vehicle type.
Type of vehicles Number of cars registered (1,000 units) VKT (million km)
2015 2016 Change 2015 2016 Change
Passenger cars 12,145 12,495 2.8% 142,662 153,686 7.2%
Taxis 248 247 -0.5% 13,725 10,805 -27.0%
Vans 594 765 22.3% 6,626 7,992 17.1%
Buses 74 76 3.2% 7,436 7,538 1.4%
Freight cars 3,434 3,192 -7.6% 64,989 63,578 -2.2%
Special cars 26 24 -9.6% 728 640 -13.8%
RVs 4,547 5,088 10.6% 62,720 72,848 13.9%
Total 21,069 21,888 3.7% 298,887 317,086 5.7%

The contributions of the passenger cars category to the emissions in the road sector by pollutant were as follows: NOx (9.1%), SOx (35.4%), PM2.5 (1.5%), VOCs (33.4%), and NH3 (89.8%). Emissions of NOx, SOx, and PM2.5 increased by 13.8% (2015: 36,193 tons → 2016: 41,190 tons), 21.8% (2015: 67 tons → 2016: 82 tons), 80.3% (2015: 81 tons → 2016: 145 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year while VOCs and NH3 emissions decreased by 1.2% (2015: 16,071 tons → 2016: 15,877 tons) and 53.8% (2015: 9,863 tons → 2016: 4,554 tons), respectively. This was because the number of passenger cars registered increased by 2.8% (2015: 12.145 million units → 2016: 12.495 million units) and so did the VKT of the vehicles by 7.2% (2015: 142.662 billion km → 2016: 153.686 billion km) compared to the previous year, contributing to the emissions increases.

The contributions of the large freight cars category to the emissions in the road sector by pollutant were as follows: NOx (21.9%), SOx (12.5%), PM2.5 (33.4%), VOCs (10.1%), and NH3 (1.3%). Emissions of NOx, SOx, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 all increased by 9.8% (2015: 90,323 tons → 2016: 99,203 tons), 16.7% (2015: 25 tons → 2016: 29 tons), 15.5% (2015: 2,822 tons → 2016: 3,260 tons), 18.4% (2015: 4,069 tons → 2016: 4,818 tons), and 126% (2015: 29 tons → 2016: 66 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year. This was due to the fact that the number of large freight cars registered increased by 15.3% (2015: 113,000 units → 2016: 131,000 units) with an increase of 14.6% in the VKT of them (2015: 9.8 billion km → 2016: 11.234 billion km) compared to the previous year.

The contributions of RVs category to the emissions in the road sector by pollutant were as follows: NOx (25.8%), SOx (13.5%), PM2.5 (21.8%), VOCs (6.3%), and NH3 (3.0%). Emissions of NOx, SOx, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 all increased by 59.1% (2015: 73,506 tons → 2016: 116,938 tons), 16.8% (2015: 27 tons → 2016: 31 tons), 5.7% (2015: 2,008 tons → 2016: 2,123 tons), 26.5% (2015: 2,384 tons → 2016: 3,017 tons), and 177% (2015: 56 tons → 2016: 154 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year. This was due to the fact that the number of RVs registered increased by 10.6% (2015: 4.547 million units → 2016: 5.088 million units) with an increase of 15.7% in the VKT of them (2015: 62.720 billion km → 2016: 72.848 billion km), leading to the increases in the emissions.

3. 1. 3. 4 Non-Road Sector Emissions

The non-road sector consisted of categories including the ships and the construction machineries, and its contributions to the national emissions by pollutant were as follows: NOx (24.8%), SOx (11.5%), PM2.5 (14.3%), VOCs (4.0%), and NH3 (0.04%). Emissions of NOx, SOx, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 all increased by 1.8% (2015: 304,376 tons → 2016: 309,986 tons), 5.1% (2015: 39,424 tons → 2016: 41,443 tons), 1.8% (2015: 14,106 tons → 2016: 14,354 tons), 1.3% (2015: 40,311 tons → 2016: 40,816 tons), and 0.7% (2015: 116.5 tons → 2016: 117.3 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year; the ships category including cargo ships and fishing vessels and that of construction machineries including forklifts and excavators were major contributors to the emissions (Table 8 and Fig. 5).

Table 8. 
Changes in emissions and percentage in the non-road sector by pollutant. (units: tons/year)
Source sector Pollutant Emissions Change
(Emissions)
Change
(Percentage)
2015 2016
Non-road NOx 304,376 309,986 5,611 1.8%
SOx 39,424 41,443 2,019 5.1%
PM2.5 14,106 14,354 248 1.8%
VOCs 40,311 40,816 505 1.3%
NH3 117 117 1 0.7%


Fig. 5. 
Emissions in the non-road sector by pollutant in 2015 and 2016.

Incidentally, the number of forklifts and excavators registered increased by 4.4% and 2.4%, respectively and working hours of the two increased by 2.4% each; conversely, the number of old machineries registered, relatively large emitters, to which the US Tier 1 emissions standards applied, decreased while that of advanced machineries to which the Tier 4 emissions standards could apply increased, resulting in the changes in the emissions (Table 9).

Table 9. 
Changes in the number of registered construction machines and working hours by machine type.
Machine type Number of machines registered Working hours (1,000 hr/yr)
2015 2016 Change 2015 2016 Change
Bulldozers 3,880 3,769 -2.9% 3,756 3,917 4.3%
Loaders 21,979 22,979 4.5% 21,750 22,276 2.4%
Forklifts 164,983 172,284 4.4% 175,261 179,537 2.4%
Excavators 136,244 139,562 2.4% 190,129 194,759 2.4%
Cranes 9,758 10,162 4.1% 11,341 11,970 5.5%
Concrete pumps 6,370 6,676 4.8% 7,769 8,675 11.7%
Rollers 6,417 6,437 0.3% 5,749 6,188 7.6%
Air compressors 4,564 4,496 -1.1% 4,505 4,615 2.4%
Drilling rigs 5,013 5,133 2.4% 3,687 3,777 2.4%

The contributions of the forklifts category to the emissions in the construction machineries category by pollutant were as follows: NOx (37.2%), SOx (34.3%), PM2.5 (40.3%), VOCs (39.5%), and NH3 (33.8%). Emissions of NOx, PM2.5, and VOCs decreased by 3.2% (2015: 44,954 tons → 2016: 43,496 tons), 1.8% (2015: 2,330 tons → 2016: 2,289 tons), and 2.9% (2015: 6,092 tons → 2016: 5,915 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year while NH3 emissions decreased by 2.3% (2015: 12.9 tons → 2016: 13.2 tons).

The contributions of the excavators category to the emissions in the construction machineries category by pollutant were as follows: NOx (35.2%), SOx (40.9%), PM2.5 (36.8%), VOCs (31.4%), and NH3 (41.1%). Emissions of NOx, PM2.5, and VOCs decreased by 7.4% (2015: 44,496 tons → 2016: 41,208 tons), 5.9% (2015: 2,223 tons → 2016: 2,092 tons), 8.8% (2015: 5,159 tons → 2016: 4,706 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year; on the other hand, SOx and NH3 emissions increased by 4.5% (2015: 22 tons → 2016: 23 tons) and 2.6% (2015: 15.7 tons → 2016: 16.1 tons) each.

The contributions of the cargo ships category to the emissions in the ships category by pollutant were as follows: NOx (56.6%), SOx (92.6%), PM2.5 (67.2%), VOCs (14.3%), and NH3 (56.0%). Emissions of NOx, SOx, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 all increased by 6.7% (2015: 85,768 tons → 2016: 91,539 tons), 2.0% (2015: 36,699 tons → 2016: 37,432 tons), 5.7% (2015: 4,447 tons → 2016: 4,701 tons), 6.8% (2015: 2,970 tons → 2016: 3,171 tons), and 6.7% (2015: 7.6 tons → 2016: 8.1 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year. This was because of the increased number of the ships in and out of ports and higher fuel usage.

The contributions of the fishing vessels category to the emissions in the ships category by pollutant were as follows: NOx (37.7%), SOx (1.2%), PM2.5 (24.5%), VOCs (64.6%), and NH3 (37.9%). Emissions of NOx, PM2.5, and NH3 increased by 4.0% (2015: 58,564 tons → 2016: 60,928 tons), 0.9% (2015: 1,698 tons → 2016: 1,713 tons), and 3.4% (2015: 5.3 tons → 2016: 5.5 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year while SOx and VOCs emissions decreased by 5.3% (2015: 519 tons → 2016: 492 tons) and 3.0% (2015: 14,773 tons → 2016: 14,324 tons) each. This was led by an increase in sales of gasoline coupled with decreases both in sales of diesel and in the sulfur content of fuel.

3. 1. 3. 5 Everyday Activities and Other Emission Sources Sector Emissions

Excluding emission sources from the other sectors (Energy, Industry, Road and Non-road) aforementioned, the everyday activities and other emission sources sector consisted of the categories of non-industry, energy transport and storage, solvent use, agriculture, other (area sources), fugitive dust, and biomass burning. Its contributions to the national emissions by pollutant were as follows: NOx (7.6%), SOx (6.7%), PM2.5 (30.6%), VOCs (66.3%), and NH3 (83.4%). Emissions of NOx, PM2.5, VOCs, and NH3 increased by 3.3% (2015: 92,003 tons → 2016: 95,050 tons), 0.1% (2015: 30,618 tons → 2016: 30,664 tons), 0.8% (2015: 673,777 tons → 2016: 679,216 tons), and 2.4% (2015: 245,511 tons → 2016: 251,371 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year while SOx emissions decreased by 16.4% (2015: 28,815 tons → 2016: 24,092 tons) (Table 10 and Fig. 6).

Table 10. 
Changes in emissions and percentage in the everyday activities and other emission sources sector by pollutant. (units: tons/year)
Source sector Pollutant Emissions Change
(Emissions)
Change
(Percentage)
2015 2016
Everyday activities and
other emission sources
NOx 92,003 95,050 3,047 3.3%
SOx 28,815 24,092 -4,722 -16.4%
PM2.5 30,618 30,664 46 0.1%
VOCs 673,777 679,216 5,440 0.8%
NH3 245,511 251,371 5,860 2.4%


Fig. 6. 
Emissions in the everyday activities and other emission sources sector by pollutant in 2015 and 2016.

The non-industry category included the categories of commercial, institutional, residential, agricultural and livestock facilities whose emissions were from fuel combustion for heating and other purposes. The non-industry category’s contributions to the everyday activities and other emission sources sector by pollutant were as follows: NOx (90.3%), SOx (99.7%), PM2.5 (3.2%), VOCs (0.4%), and NH3 (0.6%). Emissions of NOx, VOCs, and NH3 increased by 3.5% (2015: 82,948 tons → 2016: 85,824 tons), 4.5% (2015: 2,622 tons → 2016: 2,740 tons), and 4.7% (2015: 1,351 tons → 2016: 1,415 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year while SOx and PM2.5 emissions decreased by 16.4% (2015: 28,736 tons → 2016: 24,015 tons) and 4.6% (2015: 1,025 tons → 2016: 978 tons). Increased NOx emissions were caused by a 6.9% increase (2015: 9.538 billion m3 → 2016: 10.195 billion m3) in higher LNG consumption by commercial, institutional and residential facilities; SOx emissions were reduced since usage of high sulfur fuel oil (HSFO, 4% B-C oil) decreased by 35.5% (2015: 213,000 kL → 2016: 137,000 kL) compared to the previous year.

The solvent use category (other solvent use, painting facilities, etc.) accounted for 82.2% of VOCs emissions in the everyday activities and other emission sources sector with a 0.5% increase (2015: 555,359 tons → 2016: 558,004 tons), which was found to be due to a 1.2% increase of supply of paints (2015: 808,000 kL → 2016: 818,057 kL) compared to the previous year.

Agriculture (fertilizer use, livestock excrement management, etc.) accounted for 94.3% of NH3 emissions in the everyday activities and other emission sources sector and saw a 2.5% increase (2015: 231,263 tons → 2016: 237,017 tons) from a year earlier; this was found to be a result of an increase of 2.6% in the number of livestock such as cattle and pigs (2015: 189.417 million animals → 2016: 194.318 million animals) compared to the previous year.

The fugitive dust category included paved road dust, or resuspended dust from vehicles running on the roads, and dust emitted into the air from industrial processes, not from certain exhaust systems in industries. Fugitive dust accounted for 56.4% of PM2.5 emissions in the everyday activities and other emission sources sector, increasing by 0.2% (2015: 17,248 tons → 2016: 17,286 tons) compared to the previous year. Paved road dust, which accounted for 41% of fugitive dust emissions, saw a 6.2% increase in PM2.5 emissions (2015: 6,671 tons → 2016: 7,087 tons) compared to the previous year. This was because of increases both in the number of cars registered and in the VKT in the road transport including passenger cars with the number of rain days with 0.254 mm or more (US EPA) decreasing by 3.6% (2015: 130 days → 2016: 125 days) compared to the previous year.

The biomass burning category included the category of burning in everyday life such as open burning of municipal solid waste, and its contributions to emissions in the everyday activities and other emission sources sector by pollutant were as follows: NOx (9.5%), PM2.5 (39.5%), and VOCs (12.9%). Emissions of NOx, PM2.5, and VOCs increased by 2.0% (2015: 8,883 tons → 2016: 9,059 tons), 0.5% (2015: 12,060 tons → 2016: 12,124 tons), and 1.9% (2015: 86,012 tons → 2016: 87,687 tons), respectively, compared to the previous year. This was because the cultivation area for industrial crops (sesame, perilla, groundnut, etc.) expanded by 8.3% (2015: 72,298 ha → 2016: 78,276 ha) compared to the previous year, and the amount of incineration consequently increased.


4. CONCLUSION

Emissions in the Republic of Korea in 2016 were estimated by using the Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS), and the total emissions by pollutant were as follows: CO (795,044 tons), NOx (1,248,309 tons), SOx (358,951 tons), TSP (611,539 tons), PM10 (233,085 tons), PM2.5 (100,247 tons), BC (16,401 tons), VOCs 1,024,029 (tons), and NH3 (301,301). Overall, most pollutants showed increased emissions in 2016 compared to 2015, except for PM10. The percentage increases were 0.3% (CO), 7.8% (NOx), 1.9% (SOx), 1.2% (TSP), 1.5% (PM2.5), 2.9% (BC), 1.3% (VOCs), and 1.4% (NH3) with a 0.04% decrease in PM10 emissions; the national emissions in 2016 by sector were as estimated below.

Emissions in the energy sector (public/private power generation, district production plants, etc.), whose main pollutants were NOx, SOx, VOCs, and NH3 contributing to primary and secondary PM2.5 formation, were 137,744 tons for NOx, 78,779 tons for SOx, 3,230 tons for PM2.5, 7,706 tons VOCs, 1,382 tons for NH3, accounting for 11.0%, 21.9%, 3.2%, 0.8%, and 0.5% of the national emissions, respectively. Emissions in the industry sector (manufacturing industry, industrial processes, waste, etc.) were 252,534 tons for NOx, 214,406 tons for SOx, 42,251 tons for PM2.5, 248,730 tons for VOCs, and 43,360 tons for NH3, accounting for 20.2%, 59.7%, 42.1%, 24.3%, and 14.4% of the national emissions, respectively. Emissions in the road sector (passenger cars, freight cars, etc.) were 452,995 tons for NOx, 231 tons for SOx, 9,748 tons for PM2.5, 47,561 tons for VOCs, and 5,071 tons for NH3, accounting for 36.3%, 0.1%, 9.7%, 4.6%, and 1.7% of the national emissions, respectively. Emissions in the non-road sector (ships, construction machineries, etc.) were 309,986 tons for NOx, 41,443 tons for SOx, 14,354 tons for PM2.5, 40,816 tons VOCs, and 117 tons for NH3, accounting for 24.8%, 11.5%, 14.3%, 4.0%, and 0.04% of the national emissions, respectively. Emissions in the everyday activities and other emission source sector (non-industry, biomass burning, etc.) were 95,050 tons for NOx, 24,092 tons for SOx, 30,664 tons for PM2.5, 679,216 tons for VOCs, and 251,371 tons for NH3, accounting for 7.6%, 6.7%, 30.6%, 66.3%, and 83.4% of the national emissions, respectively.

The NAIR is conducting various studies in order to improve the reliability of national air pollutant emissions data by identifying exact air pollutant emission sources and resolving the uncertainty of emission statistics. For example, the NAIR is currently carrying out research to improve the existing emission methodologies for estimating emissions from enhancing allocation methods for emissions from area emission sources such as industrial sites, developing measurement-based emission factors to updating antiquated emission factors. Other studies are also being conducted to identify possible missing emissions sources such as ground support equipment (GSE) at airports, cargo handling equipment (CHE) at ports, and the defense sector.

Also, the NAIR is developing a system to evaluate emissions data from wider perspectives. This is because there are limited ways to assess the reliability of emissions data other than those directly measured by the Tele-Monitoring System (TMS) on the smokestack. More recently, in a bid to increase the reliability of emissions data, we are introducing the Community Multiscale Air Quality Modeling (CMAQ) system, a 3-dimentional chemistry transport model, in which emissions data are entered to simulate the concentrations of pollutants, which are then to be compared with those measured from the surface and satellites.

The data we calculate are used as official national emissions data for the establishment, implementation, and assessment of national atmospheric environment policy to improve air quality. As critical and necessary materials, the data are also utilized on a wide range of studies on policies such as customized regional particulate matter reduction measures. Thus, it is crucial to estimate highly reliable national emissions by enhancing the emissions factors and inventory and to establish a scientific emissions testing system by using air quality modeling and satellite data.


References
1. Choi, J., Park, R.J., Lee, H.-M., Lee, S., Jo, D.S., Jeong, J.I., Henze, D.K., Woo, J.-H., Ban, S.-J., Lee, M.-D., Lim, C.-S., Park, M.-K., Shin, H.J., Choi, S., Peterson, D., Son, C.-K. (2019) Impacts of local vs. trans-boundary emissions from different sectors on PM2.5 exposure in South Korea during the KORUS-AQ campaign. Atmospheric Environment, 203, 196-205.
2. Goldberg, D.L., Saide, P.E., Lamsal, L.N., de Foy, B., Lu, Z., Woo, J.-H., Kim, Y., Kim, J., Gao, M., Carmichael, G., Streets, D.G. (2019) A top-down assessment using OMI NO2 suggests an underestimate in the NOx emissions inventory in Seoul, South Korea, during KORUS-AQ. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 19, 1801-1818.
3. Li, J., Yang, W., Wang, Z., Chen, H., Hu, B., Li, J., Sun, Y., Huang, Y. (2014) A modeling study of source-receptor relationships in atmospheric particulate matter over Northeast Asia. Atmospheric Environment, 91, 40-51.
4. Miyazaki, K., Sekiya, T., Fu, D., Bowman, K.W., Kulawik, S.S., Sudo, K., Walker, T., Kanaya, Y., Takigawa, M., Ogochi, K., Eskes, H., Boersma, K.F., Thompson, A.M., Gaubert, B., Barre, J., Emmons, L.K. (2019) Balance of Emission and Dynamical Controls on Ozone During the Korea-United States Air Quality Campaign From Multiconstituent Satellite Data Assimilation, Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres, 124, 387-413.
5. National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) (2013) Handbook of estimation methods for national air pollutant emissions (III), http://airemiss.nier.go.kr/user/boardList.do?command=view&page=1&boardId=85&boardSeq=150&id=airemiss_040200000000
6. National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) (2015) Air pollutant emission factors, http://airemiss.nier.go.kr/user/boardList.do?command=view&page=1&boardId=85&boardSeq=154&id=airemiss_040200000000
7. National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) (2019a) Standard operations procedure for the construction of supporting data for national air pollutant emissions, http://airemiss.nier.go.kr/user/boardList.do?command=view&page=1&boardId=85&boardSeq=528&id=airemiss_040200000000
8. National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) (2019b) 2016 national air pollutant emissions, http://airemiss.nier.go.kr/user/boardList.do?command=view&page=1&boardId=74&boardSeq=526&id=airemiss_040100000000
9. Seong, M.E., Jin, H.A., Lim, J.H., Yeo, S.Y., Ahn, Y.-H. (2019) A Study on Analysis of Integrated Policies for Simultaneous Reduction of GHG and Air Pollutants Using GAINSKorea, Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, 35, 523-532.
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SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS


1. Trends in CO emissions (units: tons/year)
Emission source category 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Change
(2016-2015)
Energy
production
Public power generation 45,376 47,807 41,534 33,425 35,515 6.3%
District heating production plants 2,976 3,168 3,675 3,365 4,242 26.1%
Oil refinery 1,121 1,842 2,320 2,136 1,605 -24.9%
Private power generation 9,717 10,641 10,327 16,212 17,217 6.2%
Subtotal 59,190 63,457 57,856 55,138 58,579 6.2%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 11,177 16,989 16,227 16,956 18,896 11.4%
Residential facilities 66,647 69,180 59,341 54,445 47,997 -11.8%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 1,328 1,363 1,026 898 842 -6.2%
Subtotal 79,152 87,532 76,594 72,299 67,735 -6.3%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 1,222 2,016 1,389 1,608 3,265 103.0%
Processes 6,261 8,082 6,587 6,607 7,138 8.0%
Others 11,659 10,028 10,740 8,639 7,767 -10.1%
Subtotal 19,141 20,125 18,716 16,854 18,170 7.8%
Industrial
process
Petroleum industry 12,047 11,322 11,545 12,069 12,643 4.8%
Iron and steel industry 5,076 5,103 5,638 5,761 5,760 0.0%
Inorganic chemical industry 477 474 485 487 510 4.7%
Organic chemical industry 1,263 5,248 5,316 5,011 5,661 13.0%
Pulp and paper industry 1,545 2,521 2,604 2,469 2,495 1.0%
Others 240 244 267 272 271 -0.3%
Subtotal 20,648 24,912 25,855 26,069 27,340 4.9%
Road transport Passenger cars 137,305 123,022 136,451 123,534 118,777 -3.9%
Taxis 27,209 27,101 1,757 1,151 740 -35.7%
Vans 5,319 5,082 3,730 3,203 4,430 38.3%
Buses 18,441 18,494 9,451 6,805 6,964 2.3%
Freight cars 65,935 64,108 49,976 48,379 49,643 2.6%
Special cars 1,160 1,208 1,035 830 1,057 27.4%
RV 35,312 31,932 26,634 21,349 22,342 4.7%
Two-wheeled vehicles 151,992 138,271 52,190 40,265 40,604 0.8%
Subtotal 442,672 409,218 281,225 245,516 244,556 -0.4%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 4,039 3,657 3,057 2,734 2,426 -11.3%
Ships 7,626 7,646 54,535 60,491 62,632 3.5%
Aircrafts 6,185 7,228 7,117 7,838 8,865 13.1%
Agricultural machineries 7,287 7,244 7,165 7,097 7,076 -0.3%
Construction machineries 47,813 56,841 54,229 57,540 55,614 -3.3%
Subtotal 72,950 82,615 126,103 135,700 136,612 0.7%
Waste Waste incineration 3,300 1,957 1,645 1,548 2,008 29.8%
Others Forest fire and other fire 6,533 6,865 6,459 7,197 6,977 -3.1%
Biomass
burning
Open burning 8,758 8,565 4,498 4,200 4,080 -2.8%
Agricultural residue incineration 133,682 132,679 155,437 157,616 159,196 1.0%
Grilled meat and fish 8 8 12 13 9 -27.6%
Wood stoves and boilers 94,745 94,745 58,938 57,772 57,029 -1.3%
Furnace 10,894 10,894 6,031 5,856 5,750 -1.8%
Charcoal burner 12,816 8,315 7,000 7,000 7,000 0.0%
Subtotal 260,903 255,206 231,917 232,455 233,066 0.3%
Total 964,490 951,888 826,370 792,776 795,044 0.4%


2. Trends in NOx emissions (units: tons/year)
Emission source category 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Change
(2016-2015)
Energy
production
Public power generation 132,405 140,096 127,456 116,250 109,721 -5.6%
District heating production plants 4,032 4,162 4,651 4,116 4,075 -1.0%
Oil refinery 10,647 9,176 8,066 7,818 7,701 -1.5%
Private power generation 22,261 23,784 22,644 22,634 23,948 5.8%
Subtotal 169,346 177,219 162,818 150,818 145,445 -3.6%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 30,141 31,303 29,871 32,630 34,249 5.0%
Residential facilities 52,325 51,882 47,055 46,605 48,101 3.2%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 5,469 5,584 4,216 3,712 3,474 -6.4%
Subtotal 87,935 88,769 81,143 82,948 85,824 3.5%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 10,767 13,706 13,612 13,955 17,137 22.8%
Processes 85,180 94,292 95,197 94,326 98,494 4.4%
Others 76,813 70,036 64,852 60,858 59,702 -1.9%
Subtotal 172,761 178,034 173,660 169,139 175,332 3.7%
Industrial process Petroleum industry 1,764 4,632 4,478 4,799 4,932 2.8%
Iron and steel industry 47,339 38,622 38,485 43,671 43,352 -0.7%
Inorganic chemical industry 3,881 5,408 4,284 4,882 2,752 -43.6%
Organic chemical industry 28 32 23 16 19 20.0%
Others 5,990 6,457 6,042 6,462 4,877 -24.5%
Subtotal 59,002 55,151 53,311 59,830 55,932 -6.5%
Road transport Passenger cars 23,796 21,697 34,036 36,193 41,190 13.8%
Taxis 6,607 6,722 487 363 249 -31.3%
Vans 10,741 11,187 15,346 13,121 17,350 32.2%
Buses 36,062 35,774 31,365 34,097 32,011 -6.1%
Freight cars 232,970 224,980 204,086 206,915 239,450 15.7%
Special cars 2,772 2,550 2,482 2,479 2,833 14.3%
RV 29,345 29,353 70,509 73,506 116,938 59.1%
Two-wheeled vehicles 3,373 3,458 2,919 2,911 2,974 2.2%
Subtotal 345,666 335,721 361,230 369,585 452,995 22.6%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 9,897 8,943 7,476 6,688 5,932 -11.3%
Ships 89,658 89,887 144,030 151,735 161,826 6.7%
Aircrafts 6,368 7,423 7,323 8,058 9,104 13.0%
Agricultural machineries 16,470 16,447 16,288 16,209 16,190 -0.1%
Construction machineries 103,169 123,327 116,053 121,686 116,934 -3.9%
Subtotal 225,561 246,027 291,171 304,376 309,986 1.8%
Waste Waste incineration 14,782 9,529 12,257 11,977 13,570 13.3%
Others Forest fire and other fire 154 165 153 172 167 -3.2%
Biomass
burning
Open burning 623 609 590 550 535 -2.8%
Agricultural residue incineration 4,983 4,954 5,423 5,606 5,816 3.7%
Grilled meat and fish 6 6 9 9 7 -27.2%
Wood stoves and boilers 2,540 2,540 2,205 2,195 2,188 -0.3%
Furnace 954 954 528 513 504 -1.8%
Charcoal burner 70 46 10 10 10 0.0%
Subtotal 9,177 9,110 8,765 8,883 9,059 2.0%
Total 1,084,383 1,099,723 1,144,508 1,157,728 1,248,309 7.8%


3. Trends in SOx emissions (units: tons/year)
Emission source category 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Change
(2016-2015)
Energy
production
Public power generation 73,801 78,786 73,506 71,515 71,497 -0.03%
District heating production plants 797 1,337 1,920 1,531 1,425 -6.9%
Oil refinery 8,090 6,749 13,071 12,405 12,917 4.1%
Private power generation 8,365 10,692 6,065 5,791 5,856 1.1%
Subtotal 91,053 97,565 94,562 91,243 91,696 0.5%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 19,339 9,296 6,328 12,015 9,744 -18.9%
Residential facilities 19,496 20,253 17,111 15,471 13,204 -14.7%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 1,411 1,551 1,229 1,249 1,067 -14.6%
Subtotal 40,245 31,101 24,668 28,736 24,015 -16.4%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 4,229 3,655 3,232 2,441 2,727 11.7%
Processes 17,550 19,954 19,456 18,811 18,505 -1.6%
Others 74,837 72,227 60,294 63,847 65,362 2.4%
Subtotal 96,617 95,836 82,982 85,098 86,593 1.8%
Industrial
process
Petroleum industry 55,226 59,858 57,572 57,789 61,756 6.9%
Iron and steel industry 48,574 36,723 29,600 35,538 39,451 11.0%
Inorganic chemical industry 2,031 1,533 1,915 1,706 1,178 -30.9%
Organic chemical industry 583 360 375 448 463 3.3%
Pulp and paper industry 76 125 129 122 123 1.0%
Others 10,702 9,735 9,337 9,781 9,762 -0.2%
Subtotal 117,191 108,333 98,927 105,385 112,734 7.0%
Road transport Passenger cars 63 55 63 67 82 21.8%
Taxis 12 6 5 7 4 -45.7%
Vans 5 4 5 5 5 10.9%
Buses 9 9 9 11 12 9.2%
Freight cars 84 82 69 82 85 4.1%
Special cars 2 1 2 2 2 -10.4%
RV 27 24 23 27 31 16.8%
Two-wheeled vehicles 8 8 8 8 10 25.5%
Subtotal 211 189 183 209 231 10.9%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 255 228 191 171 151 -11.3%
Ships 64,295 64,186 39,074 38,467 40,429 5.1%
Aircrafts 595 650 678 729 802 10.1%
Agricultural machineries 4 4 4 4 4 2.0%
Construction machineries 39 51 45 53 56 5.5%
Subtotal 65,188 65,119 39,991 39,424 41,443 5.1%
Waste Waste incineration 7,140 6,517 1,846 2,119 2,161 2.0%
Biomass
burning
Grilled meat and fish 1 1 2 2 1 -27.8%
Wood stoves and boilers 121 121 62 60 60 -1.1%
Furnace 17 17 9 9 9 -1.8%
Charcoal burner 14 9 8 8 8 0.0%
Subtotal 153 148 80 79 78 -1.7%
Total 417,798 404,808 343,241 352,292 358,951 4.6%


4. Trends in TSP emissions (units: tons/year)
Emission source category 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Change
(2016-2015)
Energy
production
Public power generation 4,108 4,181 3,976 3,812 3,337 -12.5%
District heating production plants 76 114 108 132 149 12.3%
Oil refinery 184 140 169 182 157 -13.8%
Private power generation 525 527 481 565 630 11.5%
Subtotal 4,893 4,961 4,733 4,692 4,273 -8.9%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 237 145 121 184 165 -10.4%
Residential facilities 1,720 1,703 1,447 1,349 1,238 -8.2%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 442 440 340 308 291 -5.5%
Subtotal 2,398 2,289 1,908 1,841 1,694 -8.0%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 251 220 449 445 408 -8.3%
Processes 3,387 4,763 3,771 3,825 3,196 -16.4%
Others 129,672 133,843 98,518 117,399 119,533 1.8%
Subtotal 133,310 138,826 102,738 121,668 123,138 1.2%
Industrial
process
Petroleum industry 363 447 466 459 502 9.4%
Iron and steel industry 8,526 7,372 7,617 7,740 7,797 0.7%
Inorganic chemical industry 870 644 635 620 634 2.2%
Organic chemical industry 2,320 1,497 1,558 1,844 1,911 3.7%
Pulp and paper industry 47 48 44 44 44 -1.5%
Others 1,827 1,811 1,847 1,168 1,168 0.0%
Subtotal 13,954 11,819 12,167 11,876 12,056 1.5%
Road transport Passenger cars 43 62 81 88 158 80.3%
Taxi 2
Vans 619 599 435 328 437 33.1%
Buses 346 274 223 234 222 -5.3%
Freight cars 8,933 8,409 6,839 6,694 7,296 9.0%
Special cars 106 84 74 58 97 68.2%
RV 2,924 2,675 2,367 2,182 2,307 5.7%
Motorcycles 78
Subtotal 12,969 12,103 10,019 9,583 10,596 10.6%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 646 579 484 433 384 -11.3%
Ships 6,905 6,922 6,983 7,091 7,589 7.0%
Aircrafts 81 93 89 94 103 9.9%
Agricultural machineries 1,390 1,380 1,364 1,348 1,342 -0.4%
Construction machineries 5,313 6,196 5,945 6,354 6,173 -2.9%
Subtotal 14,336 15,170 14,865 15,320 15,592 1.8%
Waste Waste incineration 456 330 335 340 406 19.6%
Others Forest fire and other fire 428 488 428 498 481 -3.5%
Fugitive dust Paved road dust 134,261 136,717 140,840 143,644 152,599 6.2%
Construction 34,216 34,243 40,356 55,714 51,005 -8.5%
Playground 55,428 32,534 27,519 27,403 24,712 -9.8%
Load and unload 27 25 25 26 26 -2.8%
Agricultural 30,583 29,657 29,553 29,072 28,549 -1.8%
Livestock 28,987 29,263 29,745 30,524 31,898 4.5%
Waste 13,166 13,112 12,655 14,414 15,498 7.5%
Unpaved road dust 244,283 273,654 115,250 107,445 108,400 0.9%
Subtotal 540,950 549,207 395,944 408,242 412,686 1.1%
Biomass
burning
Open burning 1,518 1,485 1,438 1,342 1,304 -2.8%
Agricultural residue incineration 21,334 21,174 22,085 22,126 22,832 3.2%
Grilled meat and fish 394 420 606 626 461 -26.4%
Wood stoves and boilers 7,225 7,225 4,173 4,072 4,008 -1.6%
Furnace 314 314 173 168 165 -1.8%
Charcoal burner 2,978 1,932 1,849 1,849 1,849 0.0%
Subtotal 33,762 32,550 30,323 30,183 30,618 1.4%
Total 757,456 767,743 573,460 604,243 611,539 1.2%


5. Trends in PM10 emissions (units: tons/year)
Emission source category 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Change
(2016-2015)
Energy
production
Public power generation 3,920 3,831 3,854 3,681 3,194 -13.2%
District heating production plants 64 95 85 113 133 18.3%
Oil refinery 109 89 104 57 53 -7.4%
Private power generation 489 509 465 544 571 5.0%
Subtotal 4,582 4,524 4,508 4,394 3,951 -10.1%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 219 135 112 170 152 -10.7%
Residential facilities 1,439 1,416 1,206 1,129 1,048 -7.1%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 405 404 312 283 267 -5.5%
Subtotal 2,062 1,955 1,629 1,582 1,468 -7.2%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 208 180 323 249 240 -3.6%
Processes 2,111 2,900 2,282 2,290 1,955 -14.6%
Others 75,515 77,933 57,370 68,354 69,599 1.8%
Subtotal 77,833 81,014 59,975 70,893 71,794 1.3%
Industrial
process
Petroleum industry 105 129 135 133 145 9.4%
Iron and steel industry 5,454 4,645 4,755 4,833 4,856 0.5%
Inorganic chemical industry 488 367 359 348 356 2.4%
Organic chemical industry 1,183 764 795 940 975 3.7%
Pulp and paper industry 28 29 27 27 26 -1.5%
Others 342 314 337 377 373 -1.2%
Subtotal 7,600 6,249 6,407 6,658 6,731 1.1%
Road transport Passenger cars 43 62 81 88 158 80.3%
Taxi 2
Vans 619 599 435 328 437 33.1%
Buses 346 274 223 234 222 -5.3%
Freight cars 8,933 8,409 6,839 6,694 7,296 9.0%
Special cars 106 84 74 58 97 68.2%
RV 2,924 2,675 2,367 2,182 2,307 5.7%
Motorcycles 78
Subtotal 12,969 12,103 10,019 9,583 10,596 10.6%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 646 579 484 433 384 -11.3%
Ships 6,905 6,922 6,983 7,091 7,589 7.0%
Aircrafts 78 90 85 90 99 9.9%
Agricultural machineries 1,390 1,380 1,364 1,348 1,342 -0.4%
Construction machineries 5,313 6,196 5,945 6,354 6,173 -2.9%
Subtotal 14,332 15,167 14,861 15,317 15,588 1.8%
Waste Waste incineration 330 243 247 246 295 19.6%
Others Forest fire and other fire 272 310 272 317 306 -3.5%
Fugitive dust Paved road dust 25,772 26,243 27,034 27,573 29,291 6.2%
Construction 23,472 23,491 27,685 38,221 34,990 -8.5%
Playground 21,617 12,688 10,733 10,687 9,638 -9.8%
Load and unload 9 9 9 9 9 -2.8%
Agricultural 10,439 10,142 10,141 9,961 9,791 -1.7%
Livestock 9,684 9,778 9,939 10,200 10,658 4.5%
Waste 3,537 3,525 3,416 3,926 4,220 7.5%
Unpaved road dust 20,591 23,067 9,715 9,057 9,137 0.9%
Subtotal 115,121 108,942 98,671 109,633 107,735 -1.7%
Biomass
burning
Open burning 1,038 1,015 984 919 893 -2.8%
Agricultural residue incineration 8,869 8,820 9,121 9,183 9,474 3.2%
Grilled meat and fish 394 420 606 626 461 -26.4%
Wood stoves and boilers 3,365 3,365 2,002 1,958 1,930 -1.4%
Furnace 206 206 114 111 109 -1.8%
Charcoal burner 2,830 1,836 1,757 1,757 1,757 0.0%
Subtotal 16,702 15,663 14,583 14,552 14,623 0.5%
Total 251,804 246,168 211,172 233,177 233,085 -0.04%


6. Trends in PM2.5 emissions (units: tons/year)
Emission source category 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Change
(2016-2015)
Energy
production
Public power generation 3,161 3,006 3,162 2,989 2,593 -13.3%
District heating production plants 53 78 63 99 120 21.2%
Oil refinery 42 43 46 23 23 -1.4%
Private power generation 404 446 407 496 517 4.3%
Subtotal 3,660 3,573 3,679 3,607 3,253 -9.8%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 134 87 72 109 98 -9.5%
Residential facilities 889 889 782 745 721 -3.2%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 246 250 191 171 159 -7.5%
Subtotal 1,269 1,226 1,045 1,025 978 -4.6%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 117 101 165 121 148 22.7%
Processes 1,103 1,525 1,245 1,226 1,059 -13.6%
Others 38,480 39,980 28,912 34,971 35,577 1.7%
Subtotal 39,700 41,606 30,322 36,317 36,785 1.3%
Industrial
process
Petroleum industry 23 28 30 29 32 9.4%
Iron and steel industry 4,319 3,603 3,636 3,705 3,730 0.7%
Inorganic chemical industry 298 209 202 194 199 2.2%
Organic chemical industry 1,065 687 715 846 877 3.7%
Pulp and paper industry 19 19 17 18 17 -1.9%
Others 307 283 303 340 336 -0.9%
Subtotal 6,032 4,829 4,903 5,132 5,191 1.2%
Road transport Passenger cars 40 57 75 81 145 80.3%
Taxi 2
Vans 569 551 400 302 402 33.1%
Buses 318 252 205 215 204 -5.3%
Freight cars 8,218 7,736 6,292 6,159 6,712 9.0%
Special cars 97 77 68 53 89 68.2%
RV 2,690 2,461 2,178 2,008 2,123 5.7%
Motorcycles 72
Subtotal 11,932 11,135 9,218 8,817 9,748 10.6%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 594 533 446 399 354 -11.3%
Ships 6,352 6,369 6,423 6,539 6,995 7.0%
Aircrafts 72 82 78 83 91 9.9%
Agricultural machineries 1,279 1,269 1,255 1,240 1,235 -0.4%
Construction machineries 4,888 5,700 5,469 5,846 5,679 -2.9%
Subtotal 13,186 13,953 13,671 14,106 14,354 1.8%
Waste Waste incineration 265 202 204 209 252 20.3%
Others Forest fire and other fire 244 279 245 285 275 -3.5%
Fugitive dust Paved road dust 6,235 6,349 6,541 6,671 7,087 6.2%
Construction 2,347 2,349 2,769 3,822 3,499 -8.5%
Playground 3,243 1,903 1,610 1,603 1,446 -9.8%
Load and unload 1 1 1 1 1 -2.8%
Agricultural 2,088 2,028 2,028 1,992 1,958 -1.7%
Livestock 1,842 1,837 1,840 1,861 1,960 5.4%
Waste 354 352 342 393 422 7.5%
Unpaved road dust 2,059 2,307 971 906 914 0.9%
Subtotal 18,168 17,127 16,101 17,248 17,286 0.2%
Biomass
burning
Open burning 921 901 873 815 792 -2.8%
Agricultural residue incineration 7,330 7,290 7,563 7,621 7,878 3.4%
Grilled meat and fish 365 389 556 574 423 -26.2%
Wood stoves and boilers 2,197 2,197 1,326 1,298 1,280 -1.4%
Furnace 164 164 92 89 87 -1.8%
Charcoal burner 2,683 1,740 1,664 1,664 1,664 0.0%
Subtotal 13,659 12,681 12,073 12,060 12,124 0.5%
Total 108,114 106,610 91,460 98,806 100,247 1.5%


7. Trends in Black Carbon emissions (units: tons/year)
Emission source category 2014 2015 2016 Change
(2016-2015)
Energy
production
Public power generation 219 146 151 3.5%
District heating production plants 17 28 36 28.3%
Oil refinery 5 1 2 69.6%
Private power generation 83 132 141 6.6%
Subtotal 324 307 330 7.3%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 9 13 13 -0.2%
Residential facilities 130 128 136 6.1%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 16 14 13 -6.9%
Subtotal 156 155 161 4.4%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 20 14 35 144.1%
Processes 74 60 62 2.0%
Others 554 666 679 2.0%
Subtotal 648 741 776 4.8%
Industrial
process
Petroleum industry 0.02 0.02 0 9.4%
Iron and steel industry 11 11 11 -1.1%
Pulp and paper industry 0.1 0.1 0 -7.5%
Others 4 5 6 14.6%
Subtotal 15 16 17 3.8%
Road transport Passenger cars 33 39 60 53.5%
Vans 240 183 237 30.0%
Buses 158 166 157 -5.3%
Freight cars 3,939 3,873 4,187 8.1%
Special cars 52 41 69 68.2%
RV 1,252 1,154 1,219 5.7%
Subtotal 5,674 5,456 5,930 8.7%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 344 308 273 -11.3%
Ships 1,004 1,042 1,105 6.0%
Aircrafts 61 64 70 9.9%
Agricultural machineries 968 956 953 -0.4%
Construction machineries 4,218 4,509 4,380 -2.9%
Subtotal 6,594 6,879 6,781 -1.4%
Waste Waste incineration 3 3 4 20.3%
Others Forest fire and other fire 11 15 14 -4.4%
Fugitive dust Paved road dust 68 70 74 6.2%
Playground 0.3 0.3 0.3 -9.8%
Load and unload 0.04 0.04 0.04 -2.8%
Agricultural 0.4 0.4 0.4 -1.7%
Livestock 28 27 30 9.0%
Unpaved road dust 11 10 10 0.9%
Subtotal 108 108 115 6.3%
Biomass
burning
Open burning 37 34 33 -2.8%
Agricultural residue incineration 1,707 1,709 1,738 1.7%
Grilled meat and fish 23 23 17 -26.2%
Wood stoves and boilers 219 213 210 -1.6%
Furnace 13 13 13 -1.8%
Charcoal burner 263 263 263 0.0%
Subtotal 2,261 2,255 2,274 0.8%
Total 15,795 15,934 16,401 2.9%


8. Trends in VOCs emissions (units: tons/year)
Emission source category 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Change
(2016-2015)
Energy
production
Public power generation 6,032 6,331 5,486 4,497 4,832 7.5%
District heating production plants 416 432 509 472 591 25.3%
Oil refinery 262 352 318 327 296 -9.6%
Private power generation 1,282 1,430 1,384 2,169 2,282 5.2%
Subtotal 7,992 8,545 7,697 7,464 8,001 7.2%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 931 774 722 795 810 1.8%
Residential facilities 1,944 1,932 1,777 1,773 1,879 6.0%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 79 79 59 53 51 -3.8%
Subtotal 2,953 2,784 2,558 2,622 2,740 4.5%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 184 282 193 222 447 101.3%
Processes 902 1,169 1,134 1,079 1,176 9.0%
Others 2,287 2,086 1,953 1,800 1,719 -4.5%
Subtotal 3,373 3,537 3,280 3,101 3,342 7.8%
Industrial
process
Petroleum industry 55,919 52,553 53,588 56,021 58,686 4.8%
Iron and steel industry 17,845 17,847 19,325 19,408 19,546 0.7%
Inorganic chemical industry 624 606 579 564 613 8.7%
Organic chemical industry 41,289 43,790 44,050 44,417 45,508 2.5%
Pulp and paper industry 1 1 1 1 1 0.0%
Food and beverage industry 50,509 58,871 62,275 61,943 61,206 -1.2%
Others 479 487 534 544 543 -0.3%
Subtotal 166,668 174,156 180,351 182,899 186,104 1.8%
Energy transport
and storage
Gasoline supply 26,985 27,241 27,645 29,137 30,160 3.5%
Solvents use Painting facilities 358,870 354,465 339,582 344,671 347,608 0.9%
Washing facilities 25,462 26,835 27,701 28,144 27,740 -1.4%
Laundry facilities 22,115 21,836 21,304 20,407 20,390 -0.1%
Other solvent use 159,048 158,934 160,731 162,137 162,266 0.1%
Subtotal 565,495 562,070 549,318 555,359 558,004 0.5%
Road transport Passenger cars 19,138 17,536 18,045 16,071 15,877 -1.2%
Taxis 1,043 1,017 89 61 38 -36.8%
Vans 1,130 1,164 632 531 669 25.9%
Buses 12,474 12,850 12,134 12,366 11,936 -3.5%
Freight cars 14,828 14,848 11,436 11,514 12,700 10.3%
Special cars 294 311 266 246 317 28.9%
RV 2,916 2,824 2,610 2,384 3,017 26.5%
Two-wheeled vehicles 15,954 15,258 4,255 2,973 3,008 1.2%
Subtotal 67,776 65,807 49,468 46,145 47,561 3.1%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 1,620 1,466 1,225 1,095 973 -11.2%
Ships 2,473 2,480 18,340 20,970 22,185 5.8%
Aircrafts 560 578 672 700 749 7.1%
Agricultural machineries 1,997 1,978 1,955 1,933 1,925 -0.4%
Construction machineries 13,623 15,785 14,681 15,613 14,984 -4.0%
Subtotal 20,274 22,288 36,873 40,311 40,816 1.3%
Waste Waste incineration 44,843 42,907 44,612 53,173 55,520 4.4%
Others 4,414 3,601 3,449 3,901 3,468 -11.1%
Subtotal 49,257 46,508 48,061 57,074 58,988 3.4%
Others Forest fire and other fire 549 637 551 648 624 -3.6%
Biomass
burning
Open burning 5,086 4,974 4,807 4,488 4,361 -2.8%
Agricultural residue incineration 61,210 60,450 61,154 61,408 63,497 3.4%
Grilled meat and fish 103 107 147 154 110 -28.7%
Wood stoves and boilers 28,154 28,154 17,406 17,071 16,858 -1.2%
Furnace 3,046 3,046 1,687 1,638 1,608 -1.8%
Charcoal burner 7,331 4,757 1,254 1,254 1,254 0.0%
Subtotal 104,930 101,487 86,454 86,012 87,687 1.9%
Total 1,016,252 1,015,059 992,256 1,010,771 1,024,029 1.9%


9. Trends in NH3 emissions (units: tons/year)
Emission source category 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 Change
(2016-2015)
Energy
production
Public power generation 1,008 1,117 798 557 708 27.0%
District heating production plants 123 122 145 128 158 23.2%
Oil refinery 163 181 174 198 177 -10.6%
Private power generation 293 325 308 496 516 4.2%
Subtotal 1,586 1,745 1,425 1,379 1,559 13.0%
Non industry Commercial and institutional facilities 563 507 498 567 582 2.7%
Residential facilities 701 667 618 641 698 9.0%
Plants in agriculture, forestry and aquaculture 212 218 164 143 134 -6.3%
Subtotal 1,477 1,392 1,280 1,351 1,415 4.7%
Manufacturing
industry
Combustion facilities 65 84 57 67 130 94.6%
Processes 245 309 229 233 254 8.9%
Others 492 407 431 327 288 -11.9%
Subtotal 803 800 717 627 672 7.1%
Industrial
process
Petroleum industry 23,341 21,936 22,368 23,384 24,496 4.8%
Iron and steel industry 1,523 1,531 1,691 1,728 1,728 0.0%
Inorganic chemical industry 3,209
Ammonia consumption 9,933 11,584 13,984 14,320 16,265 13.6%
Subtotal 38,006 35,051 38,043 39,432 42,489 7.8%
Road transport Passenger cars 9,434 9,631 9,906 9,863 4,554 -53.8%
Taxis 102
Vans 8 8 8 7 18 163.2%
Buses 11 10 12 14 27 94.6%
Freight cars 91 90 83 88 162 85.0%
Special cars 2 2 2 2 3 28.4%
RV 47 48 52 56 154 176.8%
Two-wheeled vehicles 49 48 49 50 51 1.8%
Subtotal 9,641 9,839 10,113 10,078 5,071 -49.7%
Non-road
transport
Railroads 19 16 14 12 11 -11.9%
Ships 113 114 13 14 14 6.5%
Agricultural machineries 54 54 53 53 53 0.0%
Construction machineries 29 37 36 38 39 3.6%
Subtotal 214 220 116 117 117 0.7%
Waste Others 24 23 23 22 22 0.8%
Agriculture Fertilizer use 23,267 21,691 20,172 19,901 19,553 -1.7%
Manure management 215,707 209,426 207,781 211,362 217,464 2.9%
Subtotal 238,975 231,117 227,953 231,263 237,017 2.5%
Others Animals 12,737 12,785 12,832 12,882 12,924 0.3%
Biomass
burning
Open burning 3 3 2 2 2 -2.8%
Agricultural residue incineration 5 5 5 5 5 3.0%
Wood stoves and boilers 10 10 6 6 6 -1.1%
Furnace 3 3 2 2 2 -1.8%
Subtotal 20 20 16 15 15 -0.1%
Total 303,483 292,993 292,517 297,167 301,301 1.4%